Heart Pathology (Study Guide)

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Terms in this set (...)

What is Heart Disease?
A general term that covers a number of diseases which affect the heart, including coronary artery disease, heart-failure and angina.
Causes of Coronary Artery Disease
Occurs when the coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle become blocked.
Heart Attack
A blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of Heat Attack
Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing pain, pain spreading to the shoulders, neck and arms.
Cause of Heart Attack
Occurs when the coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle become fully blocked.
Congestive Heart Failure
Does not mean the heart has failed, simply means the heart is not doing an efficient job.
It results from an injury or a reduction of function of the heart muscle.
Can be due to arteriosclerosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, rheumatic fever or birth defect.
Cause of Heart Failure
the heart is not doing an efficient job. It results from an injury or a reduction of function of the heart muscle.Can be due to arteriosclerosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, rheumatic fever or birth defect.
Right Side Failure (Congestive Heart Failure)
heart collects the blood returning from the body and sends it to the lungs.
Left Side Failure (Congestive Heart Failure)
receives the blood from the lungs and pumps it out into the body. If it is failing the blood is not pumped effectively
Stroke Symptoms
Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body. Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or understanding. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes. Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination.
Stroke Cause
Blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked by atherosclerosis- the tissue supplied by the artery dies.
Unchangeable Risk Factors
•Age- the older you get, the greater the chance.
•Sex- males have a greater rate even after women pass menopause.
•Race- minorities have a greater chance.
•Family history- if family members have had CHD, there is a greater chance.
•Personal Medical history
Changeable Risk Factors
• Hypertension
• Serum cholesterol
• Obesity
• Diabetes Mellitus
• Physical Inactivity
• Cigarette Smoking
• Alcohol Intake
HDL
High Density Lipoprotein
LDL
Low Density Lipoprotein
Good vs Bad
LDL is known as bad cholesterol. It tends to increase risk of CHD. HDL is known as the good cholesterol. It helps carry some of the bad cholesterol out of the body.
Energy output
Fats provide the greatest energy output per gram of any food source. ( 9 cals)
Saturated Fats
Basically, means the fat is saturated with hydrogen, they are solid at room temperature. Examples are lard and butter. They are bad for you because they increase levels of LDL, decrease HDL and increase total cholesterol.
Polyunsaturated Fats
They are unsaturated fats which are liquid at room temperature and in the refrigerator. They are good for us because they help the body get rid of newly formed cholesterol.
Monounsaturated Fats
They are liquid at room temperature but start to solidify in the refrigerator. Decrease total cholesterol and lower LDL levels.
Trans Fatty Acid
They are unsaturated fats, but they tend to raise total and bad cholesterol. They are found in fast-food restaurants and commercial baked goods. Examples: doughnuts, potato chips, cupcakes.
Omega 3
Type of polyunsaturated fat. Consistently lowers serum triglycerides and may also have an effect on lowering blood pressure. Found in oily fish such as salmon, tuna, and herring.
Cigarette smoking effects
Causes an increase in blood pressure. Usually have lower levels of HDL. Within 1 year of quitting, CHD risk decreases, within 2 years it reaches the level of a nonsmoker.
Alcohol effects
In small amounts it acts as a vasodilator-Good! 1-2 drinks. In large amounts it acts as a vasoconstrictor-BAD! 3-4 drinks. Other risk factors that may contribute to a higher risk of heart disease is an individual's response to stress, sex hormones, and the loss of natural estrogen as women age.
Coronary Artery Bypass
The most frequently performed major surgery in the United States. Surgery reroutes or bypasses blood around clogged arteries.
Angioplasty
It involves creating a space in a blocker artery by inserting a small balloon and then inflating it. Now includes the placement of a mesh stent to improve effectiveness.