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Nursing research is significant to the profession of nursing because it promotes what?
Generation of a specialized body of nursing knowledge for use in nursing practice
Nurses who do not conduct research need to understand the nursing research process for which of these reasons?
• To be able to evaluate nursing research reports for relevance to their own clinical practice
Members of the nursing staff are to participate in a unit-based clinical research study. Which research-related actions would be expected of a nurse with a baccalaureate nursing degree?
• Using critical appraisal skills to understand and assess the steps of the research process
What is the primary value of evidence-based nursing practice?
• Incorporating research findings with clinical expertise when individualizing patient care
What difference, if any, exists between a research question and a hypothesis?
• A hypothesis attempts to answer the question posed by research problem
A nurse makes these statements. Which one has the greatest potential as an area of nursing research?
• "It seems that most of the patient falls on our unit occur during the night shift."
What is the key difference between independent and dependent variables?
• The dependent variable should change in response to manipulation by the independent variable.
What is the purpose of a hypothesis for any study?
• To provide direction for the study by indicating the expected outcomes
Which of these electronic databases is the most relevant and frequently used source for nursing literature?
The review of literature is important to the research process for which of these reasons?
• It guides all steps of the research process
What is considered to be essential to a thorough and relevant review of literature?
• Critical evaluation of mainly primary sources
A nurse is encouraged to use a Boolean operator to more efficiently perform an electronic search of the literature. The nurse should understand that a Boolean operator is what?
• A definition of the relationship between words or groups of words in a literature search such as "and"
Which of these factors limits the usefulness of the internet as a source of information for research consumers?
• There is little quality control over the information on many websites
The "6S" pyramid hierarchy of pre-appraised evidence developed by DiCenso, Bayley, & Haynes (2009) provides a means to help nurse consumers of research find pre-appraised evidence for clinical questions. Using this model, which level of evidence would be highest?
• Summaries such as clinical practice guidelines and evidence-based textbooks
A set of interrelated concepts that provide a systemic view of a phenomenon is:
A graphic of symbolic representation of a phenomenon not directly observable, which allows the reader to visualize key constructs and their interrelationships, is called what?
• A model
The nurse researcher is planning a research study that will use human subjects and their choice to participate in a specific treatment. The ethical principle guiding the research study that describes the nurse researcher's obligation to benefit others is what?
Which statement regarding informed consent is most accurate?
• Researchers must obtain voluntary participation of subjects after informing them of possible risks and benefits
What is the basic human right that exists when the subject's identity cannot be linked, even by the researcher, with his or her individual response?
• Right to anonymity and confidentiality
The role of an IRB includes which actions?
• Ensuring that human subjects are protected from undue risks
• Providing approval for studies to be conducted at an institution
• Ensuring that HIPAA privacy rules are maintained in a study
How should a nurse researcher expect a sample to differ from a population?
• A sample is a representative segment of a defined population
Which statement is most accurate regarding inclusion and exclusion criteria?
• These criteria serve to ensure that the characteristics of the sample and the population are congruent
A nurse researcher would hesitate to use nonprobability sampling because:
• It will result in reduced or limited generalizability
A nurse researcher opts to use a stratified sample in a research study for which reason?
• The sample population is divided into subsets that are homogenous for a particular trait or feature
The nurse researcher is deciding on a sampling strategy for the research study. Which type(s) of strategies would be considered to be probability sampling strategies?
• Stratified random
• Simple random
What should the nurse researcher expect to be the difference between data collection for patient care and data collection for the purposes of the research?
• Data collection for research purposes must be objective and systematic
The nurse researcher is attempting to answer specific questions about families' perceptions of caring for elderly parents with dementia. What would be the most appropriate method of data collection for this study?
• Structured interview
The training of data collectors to adhere strictly to a standard protocol for research project will affect the ultimate outcome of the study by doing what?
• Increasing consistency in data collection
What data collection method is most vulnerable to researcher bias?
• Observation methods
What advantage is shared by both interview and questionnaire data collection methods?
• Both seek to understand the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of participants
A nurse researcher who is considering whether to use a qualitative research design should be aware that the focus of qualitative research is what?
• Studying human experiences that occur within a person's natural setting
How is the number of subjects for participation determined for a qualitative study?
• Data are collected from new subjects until data saturation is reached
• Grounded theory:
• Ethnographic research:
• Community based participatory research (CBPR):
learning and constructing the lived human experience; hermeneutics
inductive approach; systematic set of procedures; social processes; used when little is known
anthropology; immersed in cultural setting; enter in the participants world; emic approach
to solve local problems; active equal partnerships; facilitate change
Which activity represents attention to credibility in a qualitative study?
• Providing direct quotations from study participants
The nurse is critiquing a qualitative research study. Which questions would be appropriate for the nurse to ask when critiquing the study's methodology?
• If a particular approach is used to guide the inquiry, does the researcher complete the study according to the processes described?
When critiquing a report of a qualitative research study, the nurse asks, "How has the researcher made explicit the significance of the study to nursing theory, research, or practice?" This question is critiquing what section of the report?
• Conclusions, implications, and recommendations
The nurse is critiquing a qualitative research study. Which question would be appropriate for the nurse to ask when critiquing the study's fittingness?
• Are the results meaningful to individuals not involved in the research?
The critique of a quantitative research report should include what?
• Constructively evaluating a study for its strengths and weaknesses
In which of these ways does the nurse researcher's literature review help select the appropriate study design?
• By objectively assessing available knowledge of the area
The measures used by a nurse researcher to maintain uniformity of conditions in a quantitative research study refer to which aspect of the study?
Where in a report of a quantitative research study would a nurse researcher expect the gaps or conflicts about the phenomenon studied to be identified?
• Review of literature
Both the problem statement and the purpose of a quantitative research study report should address what?
• Relationship between the variables
A nurse is designing a study to determine whether a videotape or a written pamphlet is more effective in teaching young woman how to perform breast self-examination (BSE). Which of these actions would provide the best control for a mediating variable?
• Exclude subjects who already perform BSE on a regular basis
Which method of data collection is most appropriate for a nurse researcher to use in a survey study?
For which of these reasons would a nurse researcher choose to assign subjects randomly to groups in a study?
• To help ensure that all groups within a study are representative of the larger population
What action by a nurse researcher will help eliminate bias on the dependent variable?
• Establishing strict eligibility criteria for the study participants
Why should a nurse researcher want to limit or eliminate extraneous variables in a study?
• Extraneous variables compete with the independent variables as explanations of the study's outcome
Randomization strengthens an experimental study in which of these ways?
• It increases the likelihood that the differences in outcomes between the groups are not related to chance alone.
randomized clinical/controlled trials, Level II
pretest-posttest or time series designs, Level III
descriptive, correlational designs, Level IV
Data collection instruments were sent to the same sample of women at six different times during the first year of living with breast cancer. What type of study does this exemplify?
Compared with a quasi-experimental design, which of these characteristics should a nurse expect to see only in a true experimental design?
• Random assignment
A nurse researcher is planning to write a proposal for a research study using a quantitative design. To maintain control in the study, the nurse should include which elements?
• Trained data collectors
• Valid, reliable collection methods
• Standardized data collection processes
A nurse researcher would choose to use a correlational study of multiple variables for which purpose?
• To examine relationships between or among variables
What term means a summation and assessment of research studies found in the literature based on a clearly focused question?
• Systematic review
The highest level of evidence is known to be provided by what?
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