ILAC Vocabulary

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synonym
another word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as the original word
imagery
an author's use of picturesque language, or words that create a picture, an image, in the mind of the reader. The author may use any of the five senses.
simile
a word or picture, a comparison of the two things using the words like or as.
setting
The time ( ex:- historical period, time of day ear etc. ) and place of the action in the story. It may also include environmental elements that form the background of a story.
juxtaposition
The placing of two ideas or images side by side, especially for comparison or contrast
compare
to show what is the same
contrast
to show what is different
irony
A special kind of contrast between appearance and reality- usually one in which reality is opposite of what one expects, usually involving inversion ans incongruity.
verbal irony
a statement by a character in which he says one thing but means something else, usually the opposite of the statement.
dramatic irony
when a speech or a situation is believed to be one thing, but the audience understands that the reality is completely different.
situational irony
when what is anticipated is unexpectedly reversed.
antonym
the opposite of a word.
cliffhanger
A literary technique that authors use to build suspense. An author may place a main character in a precarious or difficult dilemma, with hope the reader will read on in anticipation in order to see the dilemma resolved.
point of view
the perspective from which a story is told
First person point of view
relates the detail of a story as if one of the story's characters is narrating. that character is the "I" of the story, and all the events of a story are filtered through that one character's perspective.
third person point of view
the narrator is not present in the story ( can be omniscient, limited omniscient or objective point of view)
omniscient point of view
the narrator reveals the thoughts and emotions of all the characters
limited omniscient point of view
the narrator reveals the thoughts and emotions of a few- or only one- of the characters
objective point of view
the narrator doesn't reveal any characters' thoughts or emotions
mood
the feeling or atmosphere an author creates for the reader. Author may use words, phrases, or descriptions that convey specific feelings.
theme
the central idea or message of a work, or the lesson about life that the author hopes to get across to the reader. It can be discovered by: observing character growth and change, evaluating conflict and resolution, evaluating symbolism, and looking at ideas that are stressed and repeated in the story.
foil
a person who, by being opposite or very different from another person, brings out and makes more apparent character traits that are in the other.
poetic justice
when a character receives what he or she "deserves" in a manner especially befitting the character's previous behavior.
conflict
the problem to be solved, the difficulty to be overcome, the decision that must be made.
conflict/ man vs. man
characters struggle against each other
conflict/ man vs. himself
characters' struggle against is internal- a struggle against character flaws, for example.
conflict/ man vs. nature
character struggle for survival against the forces of nature.
conflict/man vs. society
characters' struggle against social rules or laws, usually shown as unjust
conflict/ man vs. God
characters struggle against God
climax
the turning point in the action, or the point at which the conflict is the most intense. ( it can be a decision that changes the direction in which the character is heading, or an incident that brings about the outcome of the story.)
characterization
the way that a character is described and defined by the author.
flat character
does not have a lot of description, is stereotypical, or is lacking interest
round character
well-described so that the reader knows the thoughts, intentions, motivations, or decisions of the character as well as his or her actions. The reader can understand this character and knows much more about him or her.
static character
does not change very much during the story.
dynamic character
undergoes some change or transformation through the course of the novel so that they have grown as a person.
dilemma
a choice between two unacceptable or damaging options
foreshadowing
a technique writers use to provide clues or hints as to what is going to happen later in the story. It creates a sense of warning or expectancy.
wellerism / Tom Swifties
A type of pun expressing a comparison comprising a usually well-known quotation followed by a humorous ans often silly clever remark.
context (as it refers to vocabulary)
the words that are used with a certain word or phrase that help to explain its meaning
Context (as it refers to story)
the situation in which something happens; the group of conditions (interrelated) that exist where and when something happens.
in context
a word or phrase is in context when it is read in the sentence, paragraph, or passage in which it waas written
out of context
a word of phrase is out of context when it is read by itself.
metaphor
a comparison made by calling one item another item.
comic relief
a humorous scene, incident, or speech that is included in a drama to provide a change or relief from the more weighty, serious, or sad elements..
intended consequence
an intended result that occurs due to a deliberate action
unintended consequence
an unforeseen result that occurs due to a specific action.
genre
a category or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content. The major category into which a literary work fits.
historical fiction
interesting stories with an accurate description of how people lived at a particular time.
epic
a long story, written in prose or poetry, that tells the adventures of one or more great heroes. It usually expresses the beliefs of an entire age or culture.
myth
a traditional or legendary story concerning a hero or event, especially one that is concerned with deities. Intended to explain the existence of a natural phenomenon, to teach the culture about values or social order, or for entertainment- oral tradition.
Deities, demigods, heroes
Three types of character in myths
deity
in mythology a character having the rank or essential nature of a god or goddess, a supreme immortal being.
demigod
a person / character in mythology who is part god and part human and has some of the powers of a god.
Hero / Heroine
a character who has strong abilities which may be beyond the limits of the natural, and who embodies the beliefs of a community.
characters
the people who take part in the action of a story, novel, or drama. sometimes they are animals or imaginary creatures.
main / minor characters
the most important character is the main character. Others are minor and help move the story along.
protagonist
the central or main character of the story.
antagonist
the character who is in opposition with the protagonist and whose function in the story is to provide a negative example of living.
direct characterization
the author develops the personality of a character by using direct statements (by the author or narrator) about the character to inform the audience how to understand, interpret, and value that character.
indirect characterization
the author reveals a character's personality indirectly through the character's thoughts, words, actions, or physical appearance, or by the comments of other characters.
archetype
a person, place, thing, pattern, event, image, ore idea that is used repeatedly throughout literature because it is naturally understood in the same way by people in all times and places.
plot
the literary element that describes the structure of a story. It shows arrangement of events and actions within a story
exposition
the introduction: the opening phase of a plot in which the author establishes the tone and setting of the work, introduces characters, and gives necessary facts and background to understand the action.
inciting incident
the moment of conflict within the plot that initiates the action of the story ans triggers the protagonist to act.
rising action
the complication of the plot, which draws the characters into increasing conflict.
falling action
between the climax and the denouement. During the falling action, the conflict between the protagonist and antagonist unravels, with the protagonist winning or loosing against the antagonist. The falling action may contain a moment of final suspense, in which the final outcome of the conflict is doubt.
denouement
this is the part where the conflict is unraveled. All plot complications are finally sorted out, and all mysteries, secrets, and misunderstandings are cleared up.
conclusion / resolution
the ending, or final outcome of the story.