121 terms

cms 334K exam 3

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Terms in this set (...)

eye gaze
one person just looking at someone or something
mutual eye gaze
like eye contact
when two people are looking at each other
eye gaze during interaction
gaze about half of the time during conversations
gaze less while speaking because we have to focus on what we're saying
gaze more while listening to show we're engaged
functions of gaze
regulating communication
monitor feedback
reflecting cognitive activity
expressing emotion
communicating nature of relationship
regulating communication
taking turns listening
averting gazes with people
if you don't want to have a conversation you don't make eye contact
we open or close channels or communication and let people know when it's their turn to talk
monitor feedback
as listener, we monitor for other cues and things to interpret meanings from messages
expressing emotion
can show what emotions your feeling or mood states your in
looking down means sad
looking to side means guilt/nervous
communicating nature of relationship
positive/negative about person
task or social relationship
intimacy
don't like a lot of held eye contact in our culture but mutual eye gaze helps develop more intimacy
use more eye contact in serious dating phases, use it to build intimacy
dominance
using eye gaze to show dominance
asserting ourselves as dominant with eye gaze
visual dominance ratio
VDR = percent of time gazing while speaking // percent of time gazing while listening
measuring time that you're speaking and parent of eye contact, then gazing while listening percent of eye gaze
do this for each person and when you compare the two, person with higher VDR is more dominant and perceived as more dominant
factors that affect eye gaze
culture
sex
topic and emotions
tasks
individual/personality characteristics
culture
low contact culture avoid eye contact, high contact culture more comfortable with it
eye contact seen as respect, paying attention
avoiding eye contact can be seen as respect as well
ex: eastern and western culture, prototypical eye movements for emotions, western cultures looking straight ahead at whoever their interacting with, eastern cultures the eyes were looking to side almost avoiding
sex
females more comfortable with eye gaze/mutual eye gaze
will reciprocate and hold it more
seating arrangements: females sit where they can see each other optimizing eye contact and males sit side by side
topic and emotions
pleasant/positive topic you give more eye gaze
more negative topic you avert eye gaze more often
feeling more positive emotions, give more eye contact
more negative emotions less eye contact
tasks
competition: short, looking over, checking in on seeing what their doing
collaboration: longer eye contact, longer durations, more frequent eye contact
individual/personality characteristics
own individual personality affects how much eye contact you give
more extroverted agreeable and open more eye contact to others
affect how much eye gaze you give
impressions are also given by people in regards to how much eye gaze is given
less eye contact: person is cold, lots of negative characteristics
more eye contact: more positive, sincere, friendly
more is better than less but not too much
use other person's eye behavior as a guide as well
hess perspective (pupil reactions)
pupils dilate when we feel positive towards something; constrict when we feel negative towards something (our pupils' reactions to photos)
people react more positively towards larger pupils
dilation and construction showed valence (not supported)
hensley (inferences about pupil size)
some but not overwhelming differences in how we judge others based on pupil size
we favor bigger pupils more positive qualities attributed to people with larger pupils
bigger pupils photos rated on being more attractive, persuasive, social skills, and friendly
stass and willis (inferences about pupil size)
those with larger pupils rated as more pleasant, trustworthy, and easy to talk to
looked more at face to face interactions/actual interactions
talking to people with normal pupil size and one with slightly larger
larger pupils rated higher
pupils are something unconscious we notice and factor into our impressions
factors affecting pupil size
lighting (eyes open and dilate to get more light and constrict when its bright)
drugs (anti depressant make pupils larger)
mental effort and interest
physiological arousal (goes up, pupils dilate doesn't matter if it's positive or negative)
vocalics
how you say things not what you say
overall impressions of voice
if you have attractive voice, halo effect, associate a lot of other good qualities with you
voice qualities affect impressions
workplace voice
pitch and status
lower pitch: more dominant position
personal relationships (vocalics)
how you talk about something related to relationships/friends
romantic relationships can use same pitch as partner
voice helps and reflects relationship status
stability
vocalic qualities
pitch (frequency)
variability
resonance
volume
rate
rhythm
articulation
resonance
reverberation in our head cavity
sounds going into our heads
ranges from smooth to booming and loud
volume
intensity or energy
really loud or really soft
rate
tempo
words per minute
we like to talk to someone with similar rate (125-190 is what we like)
rhythm
fluency
no hesitations, stumbles, stutters
vocalic behaviors
things you do with your voice that can be communicative
specific vocalic sounds (vocal characterizers)
crying
laughing
groaning
vocal segregates
fillers
ums and ahhs
like and you know
not meaningful but we insert into sentences when speaking
impressions with these are less favorable
non sounds
how we use silence
function of silence
why do we use silence
silence
functions (evaluation, reflecting, cognitive activity, punctuation, accenting)
pauses
silences within own speech
give little spaces of silence between what you're saying
speech latency
spaces between two people talking
time it takes when one stops talking to when the other stars
extra linguistic features
stylistic
conversational style and how you use voice
have to hear person talk for span of time in order to make assessment about them
rate and rhythm
duration of speech
dialect and accent
differences within cultures or where you're from
accent is how you're pronouncing syllables
different impressions of different accents
attractive voice qualities
moderate high volume
lower in pitch for males
moderate pitch females
more resonance
moderate to fast rate
more articulation
less monotonous
less nasality
more fluency
halo effect
methods of judging voices
to filter out content and only see how they are saying things
working around content to see how things are being said and not what is being said
constant content
reading exact same thing in all different conditions in the experiment
only different is in vocal qualities and how they said it and not what they said
meaningless content
saying meaningless content same across conditions
focusing on how things are said
filtering/splicing
filtering out certain things from recording
can't hear actual words but you can hear rate, volume, and pitch
splicing: recording and mixing it up hear different things about the voice but not necessarily what content of speech is
measurement of accuracy
free response (lower accuracy because they could rate anything)
forced choice / discrimination task (higher accuracy because have to pick between choices) depends on how many choices you give them
detecting/judging characteristics from the voice
sex
age
social status
race/ethnicity
personality
emotions
sex (voice)
good at detecting whether someone is female/male
pitch most distinguishing
females higher pitch males have lower
females have more vocal variety
females talk faster and use more articulation and more fluidity
age (voice)
as we get older voice gets raspy
pitch changes as we age
race/ethnicity (voice)
video of calling about housing and denying black people
most americans can and do determine race over phone and that's not racism unless you deny them something or not allow them to do something
personality (voice)
can detect extraversion (faster rate, louder, vocal variety, animated, articulation, fluency)
masculinity (lower pitch, less vocal variety, louder, less articulation)
type a (faster/slower rate, interrupt, louder and explosive, harsher articulation)
dominance (louder, less filled passes, lower pitch, interrupt more)
emotions (voice)
not as good determine emotions
easier if we know person
if it's and extreme we can guess
use tempo and rate to help us detect
physiological stuff happens when experiencing emotions
should be differences in how voice sounds depending on emotions
anger (voice)
loud, high pitch
high pitch variety
fast rate
high articulation
happiness (voice)
loud
high pitch
high pitch variation
fast rate
high articulation
fear (voice)
loud or soft volume
high pitch mean
high pitch variety
fast rate
high articulation
sadness
soft
low pitch mean
low pitch variety
slow rate
low articulation
communication goals
interaction management
impression management
communicating intimacy
dominance
persuasion
interaction management
interaction synchrony
socialization
nonverbal behaviors typically used to regulate interaction
research focuses on dyadic conversations in acquaintance relationships
interaction synchrony
turn taking signals are like traffic lights that make communication smooth
coordinating movements
like a flow of conversation and when it doesn't happen we don't like it
socialization
we know we have this turn taking process
socialized into this very early
turn yielding
speaker
how you tell the other person that it is their turn to speak
rising or lowering of pitch
decreasing loudness
slowed tempo
drawl on last syllable
use of utterances
extended unfilled pauses
body tension become relaxed
gestures come to resting position
gazing at other
turn maintaining
speaker
trying to ward off people taking the floor from you when you're talking
loudness increases
gestures don't come to rest
upright posture
increasing number of filled pauses
perhaps lightly touching listener
avert eye gaze
turn requesting
listener
when someone's talking and you want to say something you do something to interject and get the speaking floor
upraised finger
audible inhaling
straightening of posture
preening for speaker role
speeding up speaker with nods and utterances
stutter starts
simultaneous talk
turn denying
listener
speaker is giving you the floor but you don't want to say anything or don't have anything to say and you don't wan the floor
relaxes listening pose maintained
maintain silence
avert gaze
encourage speaker to continue through utterances and nods
repeat last words of speaker
impression management
first impressions important and every day impressions are also important
even when we know people we continually try to impress them and manage our impressions after that
attempts to exercise control over communication behavioral cues to convey a certain impression/identity
being a good and skilled encoder
associate positive qualities with us and ward off negative qualities associated with us
functional perspective
using nonverbal behaviors to accomplish goals
cognitively think about that and how we show and use our reactions
deceptive
use impression management
every day we manage our physical impression
makes social interaction a lot more pleasurable
being polite and respectful
we manage our actions/reactions and impressions to be polite and respectful
typically automatic
engrained, good to be affiliated with certain groups
do things to be accepted with certain groups
typically want to make a favorable impressions
default is to go for a favorable impressions
types of impressions
credibility
likeability
interpersonal attractiveness
confidence/dominance
credibility
knowledgeable/experience
showing someone you have this knowledge
likeability
would i want to hang with them
i want to project friendliness to be friends with people
interpersonal attractiveness
present self as charismatic and dynamic type of person
you want to be associated with that person because of who they are and their personality
credibility (nonverbal behaviors)
faster rate
fluency
short unfilled pauses
eye contact
smiling
meet expectations in clothing
no tension leakage
consistency in verbal and nonverbal
confidence/dominance (nonverbal behaviors)
greater volume
short unfilled pauses
vocal relaxation
direct body orientation
no tension leakage
likeability (nonverbal behaviors)
expressive voice
forward lean
close proximity
smiling and eye contact
interpersonal attractiveness (nonverbal behaviors)
expressive voice
forward lean
close proximity
smiling
meet expectations in clothing
encoding (nonverbal behaviors)
behaving in ways that we want so that we give certain impressions
decoding (nonverbal behaviors)
assess the other person and their nonverbal behaviors to see if we're giving the impressions we want
communication accommodation theory
about matching and accommodating to another person
converging to behaviors others have sometimes if their more powerful or of higher status
expectancy violations theory
positively violate their expectations
figure out what they might expect and then violate them in a positive way
showing more likability, expertise, interpersonal skills, confident than they might be expecting
communicating immediacy
building and maintaining relationships
using immediacy to build intimacy with others
how we build intimacy and build relationships through immediacy
immediacy
behaviors that indicate physical and psychological closeness, approachability, interest, responsiveness, and interpersonal warmth
positive involvement
communicating immediacy behaviors
immediacy behaviors in initial interactions
ways we show immediacy is shown through certain nonverbal behaviors
forward lean
close proximity
more eye gaze
more open arms and body
more direct body orientation
some touching
positive facial smiling and vocal cues pleasant
postural relaxation
we usually use some or a combination
maybe use opposite behaviors if you don't want to build intimacy
flirting
moderate smiling
moderate amounts of touch
moderate eye gaze
vocalic warmth
moderate laughter
head tilting
seductive
constant smiling
more touching
constant eye gaze
intimate voice
leaning towards each other
more body relaxation
preening
communicating immediacy once you have built relationship
more unique patterns
quantity is replaced by quality
we show immediacy in different ways in different relationships with different people
when building you use a lot of immediacy behaviors
once built you maintain and use immediacy at important times
cognitive valence approach
example of theory about developing relationships
main premise of cognitive valence approach
to explain responses in increases in intimacy by a partner
predicting when you reciprocate positive involvement or doing the opposite
cognitive schemata in CVA
cultural appropriateness
situational appropriateness
interpersonal valence/reward
relational appropriateness
personal predispositions
psychological or physical state
general conclusion on mutual influence in CVA
we tend to reciprocate when behavior is generally consistent with our expectations and preferences (or more positive than our expectations)
we tend to compensate when behavior violates expectations and preferences (when behavior labeled negatively)
CMC: are there nonverbal
assume you don't know anything about the person before communicating with them online
lack of social presence cues
no facial expressions
no gestures
trying to build relationship but maybe it won't be as effective because it's just words and no social presence
nonverbal behaviors important to interaction aren't there
worried that it wouldn't be as effective without face to face interaction
people who work remotely miss out on different things that come with face to face interaction
different kinds of cues in CMC
we can still be effective there are just different cues to adapt to
social information processing theory
translation of cues
adapting to the cues we have available to us
modify communication in way to make it more effective
takes more time
developing relationships takes more time to build trust
adaptations with emojis and abbreviations to put emotion in and make things quicker
direct verbal communication uses more disclosure and more questions
hyper-personal perspective
filtering out nonverbal cues, disadvantage there but advantage of using cmc is:
more control over messages
more control over self presentation
leads to more idealized image
high expectations for who this person is if you meet offline might not be as ideal as online
may feel closer to person
detection impressions formed on SNS
social networking sites as environment
what can people detect from your environment and what can they infer about you from environment
amounts to Facebook
detect personality from SNS
we can detect extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
might be due to verbal content of postings as well as pictures
also detect narcissism
relational qualities on SNS
if partner's were satisfied and committed
based on what they post about their partners on their pages
impressions based on owner postings
willingness to initiate friendship (attractiveness)
number of friends (more popular vs. less popular but not too many)
impressions based on your friends' postings
pictures of friends (more attractive more positive)
friends' statements (positive comments about you increases your attractiveness)
owners' vs. friends statements
what happens if how you present yourself is different from what your friends post about you
looked at extraversion and physical attractiveness
mismatched portrays less extreme than matched
if mismatched people sided with owners
humility is key with attractiveness
gender
psychological orientation
masculinity = instrumentation (task orientation)
femininity = expressiveness (relationship oriented)
androgyny = high in masculinity and femininty
bem sex role inventory (BSRI)
60 adjectives and you rate them on true for me or never true
tallies your masculine and feminine qualities
masculine, feminine, and social desirability
explaining sex/gender differences
consistent differences between male and female and nonverbal behaviors
power hypothesis
more critical theory
critiques our societal view that males have more power and females have less power
certain behaviors are dominant and some are submissive but can't classify one or the other
social cultural approach
boys and girls grow up in different cultures
can have implications for when they are interacting with people of the opposite sex
when boys play its about hierarchy leaders and competition
when girls play its collaborative and cooperative
when interacting as adults theres a lot of room for miscommunication
social role theory
gender role theory
we take on behaviors appropriate for the role we have
tend to choose roles going along with our sex/gender
females take on more nurturing jobs like teaching or nursing
males take on assertive and dominant jobs
if men in nurturing and women in dominant than they take on roles associated with job
how large are differences
there are differences between how males and females act but how large
bell curve with extraversion
mean for females is less than mean average for males
not entirely large differences
encoding/decoding skills (sex diff)
females tend to do better than males on both
appearance (sex diff)
females more influenced and focused by dress and appearance
proxemics (sex diff)
females maintain smaller distances from others and are approached more closely
if someone violates not a huge deal
handle crowds better than males
haptics (sex diff)
females give, receive, and reciprocate more touch
and self touch more
posture (sex diff)
males use more expansive and relaxed posture
gestures (sex diff)
males use more expansive and bigger gestures
females use more expressive and animated
facial expressions (sex diff)
females more expressive and smile more
detect positive emotions from males more
detect negative emotions from females more
gaze (sex diff)
females more in frequency, duration, reciprocity, while listening, while speaking
vocalics (sex diff)
females have higher pitch, more vocal variety, use more pronunciation
males use higher volume and higher resonance
immediacy (sex diff)
females show more immediacy than males
more engaged show friendliness
power and dominance (sex diff)
less about sex differences and more about expertise and knowledge, status and role
varies by expertise
persuasion (sex diff)
varies by likability
like females being likable and not as persuaded unless showing that likability
sex and the VDR
how much are you looking at someone while speaking and listening to them