POLS 2306 Final Exam

Terms in this set (35)

•in 1912 the congress also appropriated funds for the improvement of Post Roads, in conjunction with Sates and interested localities who were required to provide matching funds. This concept was the forerunner of the subsequent Federal-aid highway construction program.
•The Federal-Aid Road Act, approved July 11, 1916, is historic as it established the basis for the Federal-Aid highway program in cooperation with the States. To carry out the provisions of the Act, a complete Federal highway engineering organization was needed throughout the country. In 1917 10 districts were established, with each district given the responsibility for the construction of rural Post Roads in cooperation with the State highway departments, and for the survey, construction, and maintenance of National Forest roads in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service and the State and local authorities.
•The Federal Aid to Roads Act of 1916, the nation's first law providing federal funding for road construction, prompted the states to create agencies to administer these funds. Texas established its Highway Department in 1917. By 1925, the agency had been given full control of the design, engineering, construction and maintenance of the state's highways, including the right to acquire land and rights of way for highway construction through eminent domain.
•The agency has undergone various changes to its name and responsibilities over the decades. Its present-day iteration was born in 1991, when the Highway Department became TxDOT.
●numbers
●Affirmative Action
○ Supreme court cases
■ 2003 - Gratz V Bollinger
●Michigan was using race as overall factor in admissions
■ Grutter V Bollinger
●Race should be considered
■ Fisher V UT 2012
●okay to use race but can't be only factor
●Cost
○ State funding ↘ Tuition cost↗
○ Lots of debt, loans
○ Government cuts back on pell grants
• Grants versus Loans
o Grants- give students the funding and allow them to select the institution at which the funds will be spent
• Texas Tuition Equalization Grants Program: subsidizes tuition expenses for eligible students who demonstrate financial need and attend private, non-profit colleges and universities in the state of Texas
Student must maintain a 2.5 GPA
• Toward Excellence, Access, and Success (TEXAS) Grants Program: provides funding for qualified students
Largest financial aid program
Qualified students receive grant funding to pay all tuition and fees at any public college or university in the state
Student must be a Texas resident, enroll in college within 16 months of high school graduation, show financial need, and have no convictions for a crime involving a controlled substance
Participants must maintain a 2.5 GPA and complete 75% of attempted hours
Students only receive awards for four years after initial enrollment, after attempting 75 credit hours, or upon receiving associate's degree
o Loans- available to reward students who obtain their degrees quickly or enter professions the sate values
• Students who attempt no more than 3 credit hours beyond the required for their degree and graduate within four years of initial enrollment in college are eligible for a $1000 rebate upon graduation from public university
●Teach for Texas: provides loan repayment for eligible teachers
1949 - Legislative Budget Board - Puts together a budget - Draft- Oversee
Also, the year where Legislative Council created.
• 10-member joint body of the Texas House of Representatives and the Texas Senate
• Membership includes the Lieutenant Governor and the Speaker of the House as joint chairs
• With assistance from its director and staff, the LBB prepares a biennial (two fiscal years) current services-based budget
o This budget projects the cost of meeting anticipated service needs of Texans over the next biennium
• Constitutional limits are in place to control how much the state can be spent
• The legislature has no discretion in how dedicated funds can be spent, though not required
• Comptroller of public accounts furnishes the board with an estimate of the growth of the Texas economy covering the period from the current biennium to the next biennium
• Legislative appropriations from undedicated tax revenue cannot exceed that rate of growth
• The LBB staff helps drafts the general appropriations bill for introduction at each regular session of the legislature
• If requested by a legislative committee chair, staff personnel prepare fiscal notes that estimate the potential economic impact of a bill or resolution
• Employees of the LBB also assist agencies in developing performance evaluation measures and audits and they conduct performance reviews to determine how effectively and efficiently state agencies are functioning
• The Texas Legislative Council is a nonpartisan legislative agency that provides bill drafting, computing, research, publishing, and document distribution services to the Texas Legislature and the other legislative agencies.
Budget Prepared: is passed is ODD Number of Years
• Budget period covers two fiscal years
o Each fiscal year begins September 1st and ends August 31st of the following year
• Compilation of each budget begins with development of a mission statement for Texas by the Governor in cooperation with Legislative Budget Board (LBB)
o May urge agency personnel to ensure their agency was highly effective, efficient, transparent, and accountable
• Every even-numbered year, each operating agency requesting appropriated funds must submit a 5 year operating plan to the Governor's Office of Budget and Policy (GOBP) and to the LBB.
o Plans must incorporate the state's mission and philosophy of government, along with quantifiable and measurable performance goals
• Texas uses performance-based budgeting; thus, strategic plans provide a way for legislators to determine how well an agency is meeting its objectives
• Legislative Appropriation Request Forms and Instructions are prepared by the LBB
o These materials are sent to each spending agency in late spring in every even-numbered year
o For several months thereafter, representatives of the budgeting agencies work to complete their proposed departmental requests
• An agencies departmental request must be organized according to strategies that the agency intends to use in implementing its strategic plan over the next two years and each strategy must be listed in order of priority and tied to a single statewide functional goal
o By early fall, in even-numbered years, state agencies submit their departmental statements to the LBB and GOBP
• These government agencies then carefully analyze all requests and hold hearings with representatives of spending departments to clarify details and glean any additional information needed
• At the close of these hearings, budget agencies traditionally compile their estimates of expenditures into two separately proposed budgets, which are then delivered to the legislature
Thus, in each regular session, legislators normally face two sets of recommendations for all state expenditures to be made during the succeeding biennium
o The legislative chambers rotate responsibility for introducing the state budget between the chair of the Senate Finance Committee and the chair of the House Appropriations Committee
• At the beginning of each legislative session, the comptroller provides the legislature with a biennial revenue estimate
The legislature can only spend in excess of this amount upon the approval of 4/5 of each chamber
• In the subsequent months, the legislature debates issues surrounding the budget, and members of the Senate Financial Committee and the House of Appropriations Committee conduct hearings with state agencies, including public universities and colleges, regarding their budget requests
During the hearings, agency officials are called to defend their budget requests and previous performance of their agencies or departments
The committees then make changes to the appropriation bill, a practice known as markup, and submit the bill to each chamber for a vote
o After both chambers approve the appropriation bill, the comptroller must certify that the State of Texas will collect sufficient revenue to cover the budgetary appropriations
• Only upon certification is the governor authorized to sign the budget
o The governor has the power to veto any spending provision in the budget through the line-item veto, which is rejecting only a particular expenditure in the budget
• Legislators frequently add riders to the budget bill directing how some of appropriations can be spent
• Since the inception of the dual budgeting system the legislature has shown a marked preference for the recommendations of its own budget-making agency
o In result, the governor's proposed budget frequently varies little, if at all, from the LBB's proposed budget
• If a zero-based budget was proposed, agencies would have to defend all monies the agencies intended to spend, not just any requested increases in funding
• Budgeting
o Progressive reforms: Attempt to Separate politics and budget (impossible)
o Key actor in budgeting is the legislative budget board
Budget: be a MORAL (abortion)- Political
it determines, (EXPENDITURES) - Who Benefits
Revenue- Who pays
• Fiscal policy- public policy that concerns taxes, government spending, public debt, and management of government money
• 1942 Balanced budget- constitutional and statutory provisions that are designed to force the state to operate with a pay-as-you-go budget
o A budget in which total revenues and expenditures are equal, producing no debt
• The Texas Constitution prohibits the state from spending more than its anticipated revenue ''except with a four-fifths vote of the total membership of each House''.
o Demonstrates hostility to public debt
o Cost of debt service limits the state's borrowing powers
• This cost cannot exceed 5% of the average balance of general revenue funds for the preceding years
o To ensure balanced budget, the comptroller of public accounts must, in advance, submit a sworn statement of cash on hand and revenue anticipated for succeeding two years to the legislature
• Appropriation bills enacted at that particular session, and at any subsequent special session, are limited to not more than the amount certified, unless a 4/5 majority in both houses votes to ignore the comptroller's predictions or the legislature provides new revenue sources
o All Funds Budget- includes all sources of revenues and all spending
• Must be balanced each biennium
• Reference is often made to the General Revenue Funds Budget (GRFB), the Available School Funds Budget (ASFB), the State Instructional Materials Funds Budget (SIMFB), and the Foundation School Funds Budget (FSFB)
Including all the nondedicated portion of it
Money that can be appropriated for any legal purpose by the legislature
The ASFB, SIMFB, and the FSFB are all funds used to finance public education
o General Revenue Funds Budget- unrestricted state fund that is available for general appropriation
• Casual deficits, like unplanned shortages, sometimes arise
• Measures the state's fiscal health
If the fund shows a surplus, fiscal health is good
If the fund shows a deficit, fiscal health is poor
• Less than 1/2 of the state's expenditures come from the GRFB
The remainder comes from other funds that state law designates for use for specific purposes
o General Revenue-Dedicated Funds Budget- includes more than 200 separate funds
• Because of restrictions on use, these accounts are defined as dedicated funds
In most cases, funds can only be used for their designated purpose, though in some instances money can be diverted to the state's general fund
o Federal Funds Budget- includes all funding from the federal government
• Must be spent for their designated purposes
o Other Funds Budget- includes an additional 200-plus dedicated funds
• Each must be spent for their stated purposes
• Property Tax Relief Fund Budget
Must be used to fund public education
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