Terms in this set (81)
Give a definition of language
A shared symbolic system for communication
linguistic units, sounds that form words and other meaningful units that symbolize or stand for the referent of the word
The word table= the symbol of table
Describe what it means for symbols to be shared
connections between sounds and meaning are arbitrary(connected by words and sounds), but because they are shared they can be used by cultures
Describe in which way language is a system for communication
thoughts and ideas can be turned into a public message, and the other way around as well
Define the term "linguistics"
The academic discipline that makes language as its topic - Rules of the language
Define the term "competence"
What you need to know in order to use a language well.
The internalized knowledge of a language and its rules that fully fluent speakers of that language have
-represents a persons complete knowledge of how to generate and comprehend language
Define the term psycholinguistics
What people use (or learn) language for
Define the term "performance"
The actual language behavior a speaker generates, the strings of sounds and words that the speaker utters
language conveys meaning - unlike other sounds we may create
there is no existing connection between the concept or object to which it refers—-
units (sounds, words) used in and the meaning language and the meanings referred to by those units
of symbols: the arbitrary connections between sounds and meanings can be changed and new ones can be invented (ex: the candle is "lit" or this party is "lit")
the assigning of names to all objects in our environment, to all the feelings and emotions we experience, to all the ideas and concepts we conceive of
- Words for concrete objects
- Words for abstract, theoretical ideas that might not even exist
Each object in the room has a name—
^objects in familiar settings, but in unfamiliar place, it never occurs to us that it doesn't have a name
-we need and want to talk abut new things, new ideas and new concepts- we invent terms
- the ability to talk about something other than the present moment
- Talk about the past and the possible future
Example: "If I go to the library tomorrow, then I'll be able to..."
-while studying for cognition, you can think about what you are going to do tomorrow
language is a productive and inherently novel activity, we generate sentences rather than repeat them
-we generate utterances versus repeating them
- we can say the same things in multiple ways without repeating
-languages are creative system not a repetitive one
Explain why onomatopoeia are an exception to arbitrariness
-Onomatopoeia's are sounds that DO you have connections
Because onomatopoeia is the naming of a thing or action by a vocal imitation of the sound associated with it.
For Example, a lion's ROAR, a cat's MEOW.
-buzz, squeegee, woof, zoom, hum
Explain why arbitrariness makes it important that language is shared
Because if the connections between found and meaning are shared, then they can be used—- to communicate and converse with each other
Explain how arbitrariness leads to language being flexible
-if people share the connections between Sound and words (meaning), then they will be used to generate or create new ones
-Boo: scaring someone or your significant other
-Lit: candle or lit:party
Explain why the productivity of language requires rules/syntax/grammar
-language is a productive and inherently novel activity, we generate sentences rather than repeat them
- To understand and produce an infinite set of sequences of words we need to have a set of rules (grammar, syntax)
Describe what phonemes are
-basic sounds that compose a language
- Smallest unit of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word
• Or, all the ways the letters of the alphabet are pronounced in a specific language (about 42
-ch, ph, A, E, th
Describe the difference in the production of vowels and consonants
- Consonants: close or constrict vocal tract
> air flow is constricted
(Ex- B, T, D)
- Vowels: change shape of vocal tract
> air flow is not constricted/disrupted
(Ex-A, E, I, O, U)
-when we pronounce vowels, we change shape of our vocal tract. The production of vowels and consonants can produce different acoustical patterns.
The variability problem
-there is not a dead set pattern of phonemes it varies from speaker to speaker (accents) Or how they personally pronounce phonemes.
-sounds change- speaker to speaker and even with in the same speaker
More than one sound is articulated at the same time
- You prepare your mouth to say bag, your mouth is already shapes A after B
- the way a phoneme is pronounced depends on the phonemes that precede and
follow it (try it with bat and boot)
The segmentation problem
- how do we divide the continuous stream of acoustic speech signals into individual words
-no breaks, words elephant flowing one after another
- foreign language - Recognize speech vs. Wreck a nice beach - Misheard lyrics
• 'Scuse me, while I kiss this guy
- instead of 'Scuse me, while I kiss the sky
Explain why the variability problem and the segmentation problem make speech perception a complicated problem
-even though we are using the same phonemes, we are producing different acoustic patterns
-there are breaks between words and sentences, which both make perception a complicated problem
It's a problem for the listener because we want to know which letters or phonemes are you saying and we can't tell that entirely from the sounds because they are not always the same for the same phonemes, we want to know which words are you saying and we can't because there are no pauses between every word - we rely on context to solve these.
Explain why the segmentation problem is one reason why foreign languages are difficult to understand
If we are not familiar with the language we may not understand the flow, number of words or separation of the words.
Explain what the solution is to the variability problem and the segmentation problem
- Context, context, CONTEXT!!!!!!
Words, phrases, and ideas already identified guide the interpretation of new incoming sounds
If you know the subject or Luna=moon (if the speaker is speaking in Spanish), then you might have a clue what the conversation is about when talking about the solar eclipse.
- The comprehension of large, connected pieces of information, not just phonemes and words, but understanding what is meant by those sentences.
• Paragraphs, sentences and phrases can have multiple meanings
• We determine the actual meaning by filling in the gaps with our semantic knowledge
- An intended reference in a sentence that is not mentioned explicitly
- I take the kids out to go fishing. And then, of course, we grill them
Finding connections between elements in a sentence or passage of text - The linguistic process of alluding to a concept by using another name
-"my dog wanted his collar on"
The process by which the
or reader - draws connections between concepts - determines the referents of words and ideas, - and derives conclusions from a message
listener infers... assumes
Define "direct theory"
- A theory you have about what the conversational partner is like and what s/he is interested in
웃 —-> 유
*on a date- talking about the topics they understand
Or...... *dad and child- speaking in ways they- the listener- will follow and understand or keep the conversation going.
Define "second-order" theory
A theory you have about the direct theory that the conversational partner has about you
웃 <—-> 유
-evaluation of the other participant's direct theory and what you think the other participant believes about you (does she think I know a lot about Pinterest or does she think I'm bullshitting?)
Explain the role of conceptual knowledge and semantic memory in comprehension
-since paragraphs and sentences have multiple meanings, we fill in the gaps with semantic knowledge
Paragraphs, sentences and phrases can have multiple meanings. We determine the actual meaning by filling in the gaps with our semantic knowledge
Explain why conceptual knowledge is important for understanding ambiguous sentences
- Since sentences are ambiguous (2 interpretations), our conceptual knowledge lets us know what is most likely to be meant by that person
Explain the roles of reference, inference and implication in comprehension of a connected piece of information
These concepts create connections - we talk in sentences, and they are not individual sentences, they are connected to create an overall meaning
- these 3 processes create the connections between sentences. Reference (easiest example): Tommy broke his leg skating. He went to the doctor and got a cast on his leg.
10. Explain how developing a direct theory helps to make a conversation comprehensible
Developing a good direct Siri helps a conversation go smoother or easier because it allows you or someone to find what the listener has knowledge or vocab about something
Examples: professor and student
Student and another student (MOM presentations)
Child and parent
- the study of the PHYSICAL world with PSYCHOLOGICAL experience
-The discipline that investigates the relationship between - the physical dimensions of stimuli and - the subjective, psychological experience of those stimuli- because we all experience it differently
Define Just Noticeable Difference
The amount of change needed for people to detect a change
-physical stimulus becomes more intense
-evidence that the physical stimulus changed + psychologically experience (notice)
Example: when both headlights goes out on your car, you don't notice the first one, but the second because you psychologically experienced the physical change.
Describe the distance or discriminability effect
-greater the distance/ difference between the two stimuli is compared, faster the decision they will differ
Very large differences are judged faster than small differences
Explain what the main implications are of psychophysics for our ability to make judgments and decisions
Perception of the world isn't always ACCURATE
-Main finding: our perceptual experience is not a direct and perfect function of the physical stimulus. especially when we look at small differences.
We are not that accurate at making judgements and decisions about physical objects. We might not notice the difference even if there is one.
Judgments of Symbolic and Semantic Dim
Describe the symbolic distance effect
Two different stimuli are judged more rapidly (200 vs 300) than two relatively similar (2 vs 3)
symbolic differences are faster when the question is phrased in a way that matches our semantic knowledge of symbols
Describe the semantic congruity effect
Decision Is faster when the dimension is being matched or is congruent with implied semantic dimension in the figure
Balloons: which is higher? (Faster)/ which is lower? (Lower)
^because semantically, balloons float=higher
Yo-yos: which is lower? (Faster)/ which is higher? (Slower)
^because semantically, yo-yos drop to the floor
Symbolic differences are faster when the question is phrased in a way that matches our semantic knowledge of the symbols
Give a new example of the semantic congruity effect and explain how this effect shows the role of knowledge in even simple decisions
Tortoise and the hare. Which is faster? Turtle is slower to decide because of our semantic memory: turtles:slow.
Hare- Faster because they can hop fast
when asking to compare 2 things such as airplanes, we are fastest to identify the answer if the question is "which plane is the fastest?" than "which plane is the slowest?", because our previous knowledge tells us that planes are fast instead of slow.
Explain how a "semantic ordering" works, and give an example
- Rank order items based on their meaning, instead of on a physical dimension - Which month is the most festive? - Which of the following cartoon characters best describes you? Which month has more rain?
-rating based on semantic knowledge or meaning
Define an algorithm
A specific rule or solution procedure that is guaranteed to furnish the correct answer if it is followed
correctly - For example, a formula or a recipe
- educated guess
—-A strategy or approach that works under some circumstances but that is not guaranteed to yield the correct answer - For example, a rule-of-thumb, a quick-and-dirty solution
Describe what the normative model of reasoning is
- The algorithms to use given a certain problem - how people should make decisions if they wanted to optimize their outcomes (for the best possible outcome)
Describe what the descriptive model of reasoning is
What people actually do when they make a decision - Which heuristics do people use?
Special bonus points: what is the correspondence between linguistics versus psycholinguistics and the normative versus the descriptive model?
Rules of language
How we actually use language
Heuristics (educated guess)
- ch. 9: language and different ways to study language (linguistic: the rules of language, and psycholinguistic: how people actually do it)
-Ch. 11: the normative model says which algorithms should you use to make the best possible decision (sets the norm for what you are supposed to do)
The descriptive model looks at which heuristics do people actually use.
Describe what the representativeness heuristic is, what it is used for, and on which two features it is based
Representative heuristic- educated guess if probability of the likelihood... determined by two features
-how similar they are to the event/population
-similar to the process that produced it
Estimating the probability or likelihood of an event by one of two features: - How similar is the event to the population it came from - How similar is the event to the process that produced it (how likely is it that I represent a certain category - America Ninja Warrior: is this a sport, or a game show?)
Describe what the conjunction fallacy is
Rating the co-occurrence of two events as more probable than only one event by itself
Example: is it going to rain?/ is it going to rain AND you'll remember to bring your umbrella
*probability of both happening
Describe what the confirmation bias is
When we seek information that confirms a conclusion, positive evidence
-ignore information that might change opinion.
-looking for evidence and only paying attention to evidence that supports our preexisting beliefs.
Describe what the availability heuristic is, what it is used for, and what it is based on
-educated guess based on the likelihood from how common or HOW MANY EXAMPLES we can come up with
——how many pools are there in Chico?
Estimating the frequency (how many examples come to mind) or likelihood of events based on how easily examples of the event come to mind, the ease with which relevant examples can be remembered
Describe what the salience and vividness bias is
The idea that we see and know everything that goes on in the world but we've you more things to be more salient (more common, occurring) depending on what is being advertised more
—- example: media shows death through car accidents more than stroke. Thereby, we think it is more common because it's on the news
some examples are very salient, very easy to stand out making it very easy to remember (even if it is 1
or 2). We are biased at over estimating the frequency of something because some examples are just more prominent.
Describe what the simulation heuristic is, what it is used for, and what it is based on
Predicting likelihood of a certain outcome, given certain circumstances, based on how easy it is to think of the outcome, IMAGINATION
—- example: which is easier to imagine a professor bringing 100 sandwiches versus 100 Scantron see the final exam?
Used for predicting the likelihood of a certain outcome, given certain circumstances, based on how easy it is to think of that outcome
Describe what counterfactual reasoning is
Contradicting the present with the past and present
easy- could/ hard-couldn't
- Reasoning about an event by deliberately contradicting the facts in a what if kind of way
Explain what the role of prototypes and typicality are in the representativeness heuristic
Prototype- most typical (bird—> Robin)
—Compare the population to see how similar or how typical they are to a category
-COMPARE + MATCH
- comparing the prototypical member of a category - Highly representative of a population
Explain how an event can be rated as being a representative outcome of a certain process
If the outcome of an event MATCHES what we expect, it is to be based on our knowledge of a similar event
- Process - Coin tosses are random - Which one is more likely? - They're both equally likely • According to normative model - But, according to our representativeness heuristic hht htt is more representative of a random process
Describe what anchoring and adjustment is and how this process shows the role of general world knowledge in decision-making
Anchoring- GUT FEELING (usually the right answer)
Adjustment- second guessing
- they ruin the accuracy of the heuristic, anchor is the initial guess, but then we adjust it to what we already know about the world.
Explain how, through the salience and vividness bias, the media can influence our decisions
We assign more meaning + attention to rare events such as plane crashes because they are stronger to visualize
- A sudden, useful understanding of the nature of something, especially a difficult problem
____ finding your keys, "AHA! I know where they are!"
Explain how counterfactual reasoning can lead to "blaming the victim"
Easier to focus on the victim and come up with what it's contradicting
-victim: what was she wearing? Locations attitude, what they said (EASIER)
Abuser: action ( HARDER)
What could we have done to prevent what happened? The story focuses on what Mrs. Lipton did - It is therefore easier to think of what Mrs. Lipton should have done differently
Explain what the new, adaptive approach is to studying decision-making and how it is different from the old approach
- New approach / adaptive thinking - focuses on peoples limitations—in terms of insufficient time, mental capacity, and knowledge
—and explores how well our heuristic reasoning processes deal with reality despite those limitations
- Old approach: - focus on how peoples descriptive models are different from the normatively correct algorithms
Describe what a "Gestalt" is
- Whole, field, whole pattern, form, configuration, a holistic cohesive grouping, organization
Describe functional fixedness, and give a daily-life example
- The tendency to use objects and concepts in the problem environment in only their customary and usual way - Not seeing other possible relations between objects
—example: using a piece of paper as a bottle cap opener
Describe negative set, and give a daily life example
- The bias or tendency to solve problems in one particular way, using a single specific approach, even when a different approach might be more productive - Again, not organizing the problem in a different way
-the other day in cognition, Natalie tried opening her banana a certain way, even after trying twice to open it the same way. She could of opening the banana like a monkey-could of been more productive, but she opened the banana from the stem.
- A relationship between two similar situations, problems, or concepts
—- a chair is like a tree stump (you can sit on both)
Define what a problem is
When a person wants to reach a goal and does not know immediately what series of actions can be performed to reach that goal
Explain what the relationship is between "Gestalts" and problem solving
Reorganizing and configuring elements in the problem
- Problem solving often involves a re-organization of the problem and of the elements of the problem
Explain how functional fixedness and negative set fit into the Gestalt approach to problem solving
- functional fitness allows us to you things from the environment to solve the problem
-Negative said is using the same functional fitness every time you saw the problem. And Gestalt is simply organizing and configuring the elements in the process of solving the problem
According to Gestalt psychologists, problem-solving involves organizing or re-organizing your problem to find a solution
- Not helpful for solving your problem:
• Functional fixedness: only thinking of one function for an object
• Negative set: only thinking of one strategy for a problem
Explain Gick and Holyoak's study on the use of analogy in problem solving and describe their goal, results and conclusion
Their goal- do analogies help or benefit with problem-solving
Their results- with the hint 76% to 92% and without the hint 20%
Their conclusion: with hints we can use analogies
Define what a goal is
- The desired end-point or solution of the problem-solving activity
Define what a subgoal is
- the break down of smaller goals
Intermediate goals along the route to the eventual solution of the problem
Give the four characteristics of a problem-solving activity according to Anderson:
-Goal directedness: overall BEHAVIOR leading to achievement of goal or purpose
-Sequence of operations: steps towards the goal
-Cognitive operations: behavior or physical at that completes mental operations
-Subgoal decomposition: set goals must be rich to complete the final goal
Describe what a problem space is
MENTAL REPRESENATION of subgoals, goals or other possible outcomes
The initial, intermediate, and goal states of the problem, including the problem solvers knowledge at each step
Explain what makes problem solving difficult, given the definition of a problem and a goal
Determining the difficulty of a problem by each step will lead to a goal
Describe what operators are, and what their relationship to the problem space is
Operator: OPERATIONS/ moves in problem solving.. move You along the problem space process (MENTAL REPRESENTATION)
-the mental breakdown of which operations can you use to problem solve
The set of legal operations or moves that can be performed during problem solution - To move from one node to the next in the problem space - Often problems are specified to limit the possible operators • boat can only carry 200 pounds
• We don't have unlimited amounts of money for our summer travels
Explain the difference between a well-defined problem and an ill-defined problem
- Well-defined problems: have an explicit and complete specification of the initial and goal states- SPECIFIES
- Ill-defined problems: have states, operators, or both, that are only VAGUELY specified (Get creative! Be happy!)
Describe how problem solving can be considered a search through the problem space and describe how relevant information can make this search more efficient
- Problem-solving could be considered a search of the problem space, or trips taken down the solution tree - When lucky there is information available, either in the initial or intermediate steps, that allow a reduction of the problem space, pruning of the solution tree
Describe what Means-End Analysis heuristic is
Problem solved by repeating the determined difference between current state and goal or sub goal then finding/applying operator that reduces difference
1. Set up goal or sub goal
2. Look for difference between the current-state and the goal or subgoal.
3. Look for operator that will reduce or eliminate this difference (ready to perform? Go to step 4. If not? Find new subgoal)
4. Apply the operator
5. Repeat steps 2-4 until subgoal or goal is complete.
A method to determine which steps to use to get to your goal. The best known heuristic for problem solving
Explain how the Means(resources)-End Analysis heuristic works, and include the concepts of goal, subgoal, operator, and "difference" in your explanation
—example is writing a paper—-
- 1. Set up a goal or subgoal
>pick a topic
- 2. Look for difference between current state and goal/subgoal state
>find relevant material
- 3. Look for operator that will reduce the difference (could be the setting of new subgoal
• Ask yourself: am I ready to perform this action?
• If the action can be performed - Apply operator
• Otherwise - Set a new subgoal to make the action possible
- Do I have what it takes to move on to the next step?
>read and understand the material
-4. Apply the operator
>write the paper
5. Repeat 2-3 until all subgoals and goals are achieved