The American Pageant Chapters 1-3 Key Terms and People to Know
Terms in this set (96)
A huge, rocky region that curves around Hudson Bay like a giant horseshoe. The Shield covers half the land area of Canada.
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
A Mesoamerican civilization of Mexico who created a strong empire that flourished between the 14th and 15th century. The arrival of Hernando Cortez and the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire.
Group of people united under one independent government. These formed out of nationalism.
An ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis. It served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
Beans growing on the trellis of the cornstalks and squash covering the plants mounds to retain moisture in the soil.
Dealers or agents acting as go-betweens for the producers of goods and the retailers or consumers
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
An estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale (especially in tropical areas).
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Spanish for conquerors. Men who traveled extensively through the Americas, leading small armies of men, and who established themselves as imperial rulers.
An economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit.
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it.
June 30, 1520 - "Sad night", when the Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochitlan, killing hundreds.
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry.
Battle of Acoma
In 1599, Spanish troops led by Don Juan Onate defeated the Pueblo Indians of the Acoma village and severed one foot of each survivor.
An Indian uprising in 1680 where Pueblo rebels, in an attempt to resist catholicism and Europeans all together, destroyed every Catholic church in the province and killed scores of priests and hundreds of Spanish settlers.
Concept that Spanish conquerors merely tortured and murdered Indians, stole gold and infected them with smallpox, leaving nothing of benefit.
Ferdinand of Aragon
He married Isabella of Castile to form a union for Spain (though they were never politically united). He and Isabella worked together to form a strong infantry army in Spain.
Isabella of Castile
The wife of Ferdinand of Aragon and queen of Spain. Their marriage constituted a dynastic union of two royal houses instead of the political union of two peoples.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506).
A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541).
Bartolome de Las Casas
Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights.
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.
Malinche (Dona Marina)
The female translator for Cortes and helped him recruit allies. She was very intelligent and is said to be the mother of Mexico because she had Cortes' child.
Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes.
Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot)
English explorer sent to northeastern coast of North America in 1497 and 1498.
Robert de La Salle
Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.
Father Junipero Serra
Franciscan friar who established 21 missions along the coast of California.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
English colony that Walter Raleigh founded on an island off North Carolina in 1585; the colonists who did not return to England disappeared without a trace in 1590.
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son.
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Legal document giving certain rights to a person or company.
The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
Declared by Lord De La Warr when he took over Jamestown; marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe (first interracial union in Virginia) ended war in 1614.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Indians last effort to dislodge Virginians, they were defeated. Peace treaty of 1646 stopped any hope of creating native peoples into Virginia society or peace with coexisting.
Act of Toleration
An act passed in Maryland 1649 that granted freedom of worship to all Christians; although it was enacted to protect the Catholic minority in Maryland, it was a benchmark of religious freedom in all the colonies. It did not extend to non-Christians, however.
Barbados Slave Code
Established in 1661, it gave masters virtually complete control over their slaves including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions.
Poor farmers in North Carolina and elsewhere who occupied land and raised crops without gaining legal title to the soil.
War in the Carolinas from 1711 through 1713 between the Tuscarora Indians and the colonists.
Defeated by the South Carolinans in the war of 1715-1716. The Yamasee defeat devastated the last of the coastal Indian tribes in the Southern colonies.
A protective barrier that separates two entities.
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England.
Reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada.
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596).
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
The first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625.
Captain John Smith
English army captain whose strict discipline helped the Jamestown settlement to survive.
Indian leader who ruled tribes in the James River area of Virginia.
A Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617).
Lord De La Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
A native American chieftain who argued for peace with the European settlers (16th century).
A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin.
The belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power.
a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. Ended in 1642 when King Charles I effectively shut off emigration to the colonies with the start of the English Civil War.
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
The constitution of the Connecticut River colony drawn up in 1639, it established a government controlled in democratic style by the "substantial" citizens.
The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
King Philip's War
Vicious Indian vs. New England Confederation conflict. Thousands dead, Indian resistance in New England virtually gone by the end of it.
English Civil War
Civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America
Glorious (or Bloodless) Revolution
Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarch. James II, replacing him with Dutch-born William III and Mary, daughter of James II. William and Mary accepted increased Parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority.
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies.
Vast estates along the Hudson River established by the Dutch. They had difficulty attracting peasant labor, and most were not successful.
Regulation that prohibited certain private activities people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays.
A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion.
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591-1643).
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
Wampanoag leader who who aided the Pilgrims (1580-1661).
Metacom (King Philip)
Indian who united the tribes and defeated 52 Puritan towns.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism.
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
Protestant Dutch stadtholder who became king of England; joint ruled with Mary; under their rule Bill of Rights made England a constitutional monarchy.
(1689-1694) This daughter of James II came to the throne and ruled jointly with her husband and 1st cousin, William of Orange, when James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution.
English navigator who discovered the Hudson River.
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Duke of York
King Charles the Second gave the colony to his brother (this name) who renamed it New York instead of New Netherland/New Amsterdam.
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
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