42 terms

US History (Unit 2)

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Proclamation of 1763
Declaration by the British king ordering all colonists to remain east of the Appalachian Mountains
Stamp Act
A 1765 law passed by Parliament that required colonists to pay taxes on printed materials.
Intolerable Acts
American name for the Coercive Acts, which Parliament passed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
Sons of Liberty
Organization of colonists formed in opposition to the Stamp Act and other British laws and taxes.
Daughters of Liberty
The formal women Patriot association that was formed in 1763 to protest the Stamp Act and later the Townshend Acts, as well as a general term for women who identified themselves as fighting for liberty during the American Revolution.
Committees of Correspondence
Networks of local groups that informed colonists of British measures and the opposition to them in the years before the American Revolution.
Thomas Paine
Political philosopher who wrote Common Sense. He urged colonists to declare independence from England.
Declaration of Independence
Document written by Thomas Jefferson, in which the colonists declared their independence from England.
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, which encouraged the colonists to declare their independence from England.
Thomas Jefferson
This guy was the main author of the Declaration of Independence.
Committee of Five
A team of five men who drafted and presented to the Congress what would become America's Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776. This Declaration committee operated from June 11, 1776 until July 5, 1776, the day on which the Declaration was published.
George Washington
This guy was the leader of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. He eventually became the first President of the U.S.
Parliament
This is England's law-making body. This body created taxes that colonists resisted.
Tea Act
A law that forced colonists to buy tea directly from the British East India Company.
First Continental Congress
A meeting that took place after the passage of the Intolerable Acts. This Congress decided to boycott British goods, form a militia, and appeal to King George III.
Boston Tea Party
In response to the Tea Act, the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Indians and boarded ships docked in Boston's Harbor. They then dumped crates of tea into the harbor.
Boston Port Bill
This was one of the Intolerable Acts. It closed the port of Boston until the tea had been paid for.
Massachusetts Government Act
This was one of the Intolerable Acts. It made Massachusetts Bay less democratic. Colonists were no longer allowed to hold town meetings.
Administration of Justice Act
This was one the Intolerable Acts. British soldiers accused of murder were sent back to England to face trial.
Quartering Act
This was one of the Intolerable Acts. Colonists had to house and feed British soldiers.
Benjamin Franklin
He diplomatically encouraged the French to support the colonists during the American Revolution.
Baron von Steuben
A German military leader chosen by George Washington to prepare and train soldiers to fight the Redcoats.
Marquis de Lafayette
A French aristocrat who became George Washington's advisor during the American Revolution.
Valley Forge
This was a camp where Washington had Baron von Steuben train his soldiers during the winter of 1777-1778.
Battle of Trenton
During this battle, Washington crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night of 1776, and surprise attacked the Hessian soldiers.
Battle of Saratoga
This battle was important because the colonists' victory influenced the French to help the Colonists fight the British.
Battle of Yorktown
This was the final battle of the American Revolution. The Colonial Army and the French Navy trapped Lord Cornwallis and forced him to surrender.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War. England recognized American Independence
Articles of Confederation
The first Constitution in the U.S. It was ineffective because the federal government was too weak to accomplish anything. The states retained all of the power.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A system where settlers could purchase farmland in the undeveloped west
Shays' Rebellion
An uprising by farmers who attacked government buildings. Due to the weak nature of the Articles of Confederation, the government had no military to stop the rebellion.
Great Compromise
An agreement during the Constitutional Convention between big states and small states. There would be two houses in the Legislative Branch. The first house would be based on the size of the state; the other house would have an equal number of representatives.
Virginia Plan
This plan for a new constitution called for a legislative branch that would be based on the size of the state's population. Large states liked this plan.
New Jersey Plan
This plan for a new constitution called for a legislative branch that would be based on equal representation (each state would have an equal number of representatives). Small states liked this plan.
Three-Fifths Compromise
A compromise involving slavery during the Constitutional Convention. The agreement states that states could count every five slaves as three people to help increase a state's population.
Federalists
People who supported the ratification (approval) of the U.S. Constitution. These people believed in a strong national government.
Anti-Federalists
People who opposed the ratification (approval) of the U.S. Constitution. These people feared a strong national government.
Federalist Papers
A series of essays that explained why a strong national government was needed. The authors wrote these essays to encourage people to accept the new Constitution.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments in the U.S. Constitution. These amendments are protections against government abuse. These amendments were added to persuade the Anti-Federalists to ratify the Constitution.
Limited Government
The philosophy that government power should be restricted by law.
James Madison
This guy is known as the father of the Constitution and a Federalist.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
This established the Northwest Territory, which eventually became new states. This territory outlawed slavery, provided public education, freedom of religion, and trial by jury.

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