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Sociology Exams

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In applying the sociological perspective to the study of teenagers from wealthy families who are convicted of shoplifting, sociologists would be most likely to focus on the
impact of the larger culture and the social world on teenager's criminal behavior.
The sociologist who conducted extensive research on varying rates of suicide within a specific country and among different countries was
Emile Durkheim.
According to Karl Marx, the force which drives human history and is at the core of human progress is
class conflict.
The functionalist perspective
views society as a system of interdependent and interrelated parts.
Attending sociology class regularly will have the unintended benefit of increasing one's chances of making friends with other students. According to the functionalist perspective, this is a __________ function of attending class.
comlementary
Which sociological perspective would be most interested in the reaction that a vacationer might have at encountering nudism at a beach on a Caribbean island?
symbolic interactionist perspective
Viewing society as being comprised of groups that engage in competition for scarce resources is the underlying premise in
conflict theory.
In the statement, "The more education people have, the more likely they are to vote," voting is the __________ variable.
dependent
The first step in the scientific research method is
selecting a topic
A general type of research method that included one group that receives therapy or treatment and another that does not receive the treatment or therapy is referred to as a(n)
experiment
What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects shared by a particular people?
culture
Religious beliefs would be an example of
nonmaterial culture
Which sociological perspective is most likely to emphasize that every aspect of culture is intertwined with others and contributes to the culture as a whole?
functionalist perspective
Symbols include all of the following
sounds, gestures, colors, objects
While vacationing in Great Britain, you discover that the British drive on the wrong side of the road, speak with a funny accent, and eat weird foods. Your attitudes are an expression of
ethnocentrism
What is the difference between values and norms?
Values are abstract, general concepts, whereas norms are specific guidelines for behavior
In a South Pacific society called the Dobu, individuals who succeeded in acts of thievery, adultery, or treachery were admired. This admiration would best be termed a
value
When Hector came home an hour after his curfew, his parents took away his car keys for one week. His parents' response was a type of
sanction
A counterculture is
a group that rejects the norms and values of the dominant group and seeks an alternative lifestyle.
When Napster first enabled users to exchange music files on the Internet, recording companies cried "foul" even though there were no laws to limit such exchanges. This gap between social norms and technology provides an illustration of
cultural lag
In the Nature vs. Nurture argument regarding socialization, the nurture component refers to __________.
the social environment
What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?
intimate physical contact
A phrase used by Cooley to emphasize that the self is a product of our social interactions with others is called:
the looking-glass self.
Tony is five years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead's theory, he is in the ________ stage.
play stage
A child is tempted to steal candy from a grocery store counter, but realizes that this action is viewed as "wrong" by adult society, including parents, teachers, and religious leaders. In Mead's terms, the child has become aware of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of
generalized others
Preparation for many aspects of adult life begins during childhood and adolescence, and continues through our lives as we prepare for new responsibilities, through a process of
anticipatory socialization
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Bill and Hillary. They plan to buy Bill a Tonka truck and Hillary a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of __________ by parents.
gender socialization
The fact that parents let their preschool boys roam farther from home than their preschool girls illustrates the idea that:
girls are socialized to be more dependent
Traditionally, statuses men occupy (father, husband) are given greater prestige than those occupied by women (mother, wife). This awarding of privilege and prestige to one group while denying it to the other is called ________.
social inequality
As a third grader, Henry is reading stories about the American Revolution and how the early Americans were willing to fight to gain their freedom. According to conflict theorists, Henry is learning not only to read, but is also being taught lessons in patriotism and democracy. These lessons would be referred to by conflict theorists as ________.
part of the hidden curriculum in U.S. schools
In Amsterdam a 21-year old prostitute is scantily clothed exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?
this is an example of social interaction
The typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers, is referred to as ________.
social structure
A female, a midwife, a student and a gang member are all examples of
statuses
ascribed statuses may be based on individuals
skills, gender, education level
Billy, a very bright youngster, is 14 years old and is a sophomore in college. This is an example of
status inconsistency
Barack proposes marriage to Michelle and presents her with a diamond ring. The ring represents
a status symbol
Being a son or daughter is your __________, but your parents' expectation that you show respect to them is your __________.
status; role
On his 25th wedding anniversary, Bob's boss insisted he spend the entire evening at the office finishing a crucial contract for the next morning. Bob was experiencing
role conflict
According to Goffman, when you close your bedroom door to achieve some privacy you are engaging in
back stage behavior
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the ________.
thomas theorem
A __________ is characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation.
primary group
A group of strangers waiting for a bus at the corner of Poplar and Main Streets is an example of a(n) __________.
aggregate
Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and the Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________.
out groups
Mark has been working at the Palisades Insurance Company for two years. During this time, he has attended all the company functions, joined one of the established churches in the community, and is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. His participation in these various groups and events is termed __________.
networking
Upon graduating from a small Midwestern high school, Joe enrolls in a large, west coast university. He observes that his classmates use different slang terms and wear clothing that is quite different from that worn in his old high school. Joe begins to adopt the behavior patterns of his new college peers who are now his:
reference group
Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated that:
because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiments demonstrated that:
a substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority
Joanne is a member of a group that is developing a questionnaire as a group project in her Introductory Sociology class. Whenever they meet, Joanne finds she is always trying to keep the group focused on putting the questionnaire together. Joanne would be considered the __________ leader of the group.
instrumental
Different situations require that different styles of leadership be used to meet the primary goals of the group. Imagine a tour group that is lost in the desert. Which type of leadership would be best for the tour guide to adopt?
authoritarian
Janet communicates periodically with people on the Internet who are interested in sociology. According to your author, Janet belongs to a new type of group called a(n) __________.
electronic community
Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamo tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of __________.
the cultural relativity of deviance
"Law reflects the interests of the elites in a society. This explains why offenses commonly committed by the upper classes are treated more leniently than offenses typically committed by the lower classes." This argument is consistent with:
conflict theory
Deviance is useful because it helps define the limits of acceptable behavior. This statement represents the view of which theoretical perspective?
functionalism
Use Robert Merton's structural strain theory to classify the deviance type illustrated by the recent wave of corporate financial scandal.
innovation
According to Sutherlands differential association theory, people become criminals when they
are more strongly socialized to break the law than to obey it.
A specific form of deviance that involves the violation of rules that have been written into law is called __________.
crime
A theorist who sees the law as an instrument of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in their privileged positions would be considered a(n) __________ theorist.
conflict
Characteristics that discredit people are referred to as __________.
stigma
In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as:
techniques of neutralization
Josh needs to achieve a 4.0 grade point average to qualify for admission to graduate school. He fears that he will not pass the final exam in chemistry and has decided to sit next to Heather, the best student in the class, and copy her paper. According to Merton's theory and typologies, Max would be considered a(n) __________.
innovator
Social __________ is the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige.
stratification
Ravi was born into a society with a caste system. How likely is it that he will change his caste?
Not at all likely, because his caste status is assigned at birth
A form of stratification based on people's economic status, which is subject to change based on an individual's achieved status, is called:
a class system
Marx believed that an individual's social class placement was based solely on a person's:
relationship to the means of production
According to Weber, social class is actually made up of three components; __________.
property, power, and prestige
Updating Weber, Gilbert and Kahl develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries. In addition to the criteria of wealth, power and prestige, they included __________ in their model.
education
The poverty line, the official measure of poverty in the United States, is calculated to include people whose incomes are:
3 times a low-cost food budget
the age group most likely to be poor in the U.S. today is
children (under age 18)
Joanne and her two children are on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Joanne and her children will be in poverty for __________.
a year or less
Which of the following statements best reflects the reality of income inequality in the United States over the past 30 years?
incomes of the poor have declined while the incomes of the rich have increased