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According to Goffman, when you close your bedroom door to achieve some privacy you are engaging in

back stage behavior

According to Karl Marx, the force which drives human history and is at the core of human progress is

class conflict.

According to Sutherlands differential association theory, people become criminals when they

are more strongly socialized to break the law than to obey it.

According to Weber, social class is actually made up of three components; __________.

property, power, and prestige

the age group most likely to be poor in the U.S. today is

children (under age 18)

As a third grader, Henry is reading stories about the American Revolution and how the early Americans were willing to fight to gain their freedom. According to conflict theorists, Henry is learning not only to read, but is also being taught lessons in patriotism and democracy. These lessons would be referred to by conflict theorists as ________.

part of the hidden curriculum in U.S. schools

ascribed statuses may be based on individuals

skills, gender, education level

Attending sociology class regularly will have the unintended benefit of increasing one's chances of making friends with other students. According to the functionalist perspective, this is a __________ function of attending class.


Barack proposes marriage to Michelle and presents her with a diamond ring. The ring represents

a status symbol

Being a son or daughter is your __________, but your parents' expectation that you show respect to them is your __________.

status; role

Billy, a very bright youngster, is 14 years old and is a sophomore in college. This is an example of

status inconsistency

Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamo tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of __________.

the cultural relativity of deviance

Characteristics that discredit people are referred to as __________.


A child is tempted to steal candy from a grocery store counter, but realizes that this action is viewed as "wrong" by adult society, including parents, teachers, and religious leaders. In Mead's terms, the child has become aware of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of

generalized others

Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and the Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________.

out groups

A counterculture is

a group that rejects the norms and values of the dominant group and seeks an alternative lifestyle.

Deviance is useful because it helps define the limits of acceptable behavior. This statement represents the view of which theoretical perspective?


Different situations require that different styles of leadership be used to meet the primary goals of the group. Imagine a tour group that is lost in the desert. Which type of leadership would be best for the tour guide to adopt?


The fact that parents let their preschool boys roam farther from home than their preschool girls illustrates the idea that:

girls are socialized to be more dependent

A female, a midwife, a student and a gang member are all examples of


The first step in the scientific research method is

selecting a topic

A form of stratification based on people's economic status, which is subject to change based on an individual's achieved status, is called:

a class system

The functionalist perspective

views society as a system of interdependent and interrelated parts.

A general type of research method that included one group that receives therapy or treatment and another that does not receive the treatment or therapy is referred to as a(n)


A group of strangers waiting for a bus at the corner of Poplar and Main Streets is an example of a(n) __________.


If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the ________.

thomas theorem

In Amsterdam a 21-year old prostitute is scantily clothed exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?

this is an example of social interaction

In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as:

techniques of neutralization

In applying the sociological perspective to the study of teenagers from wealthy families who are convicted of shoplifting, sociologists would be most likely to focus on the

impact of the larger culture and the social world on teenager's criminal behavior.

In a South Pacific society called the Dobu, individuals who succeeded in acts of thievery, adultery, or treachery were admired. This admiration would best be termed a


In the Nature vs. Nurture argument regarding socialization, the nurture component refers to __________.

the social environment

In the statement, "The more education people have, the more likely they are to vote," voting is the __________ variable.


A __________ is characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation.

primary group

Janet communicates periodically with people on the Internet who are interested in sociology. According to your author, Janet belongs to a new type of group called a(n) __________.

electronic community

Joanne and her two children are on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Joanne and her children will be in poverty for __________.

a year or less

Joanne is a member of a group that is developing a questionnaire as a group project in her Introductory Sociology class. Whenever they meet, Joanne finds she is always trying to keep the group focused on putting the questionnaire together. Joanne would be considered the __________ leader of the group.


Josh needs to achieve a 4.0 grade point average to qualify for admission to graduate school. He fears that he will not pass the final exam in chemistry and has decided to sit next to Heather, the best student in the class, and copy her paper. According to Merton's theory and typologies, Max would be considered a(n) __________.


"Law reflects the interests of the elites in a society. This explains why offenses commonly committed by the upper classes are treated more leniently than offenses typically committed by the lower classes." This argument is consistent with:

conflict theory

Mark has been working at the Palisades Insurance Company for two years. During this time, he has attended all the company functions, joined one of the established churches in the community, and is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. His participation in these various groups and events is termed __________.


Marx believed that an individual's social class placement was based solely on a person's:

relationship to the means of production

Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiments demonstrated that:

a substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority

On his 25th wedding anniversary, Bob's boss insisted he spend the entire evening at the office finishing a crucial contract for the next morning. Bob was experiencing

role conflict

A phrase used by Cooley to emphasize that the self is a product of our social interactions with others is called:

the looking-glass self.

The poverty line, the official measure of poverty in the United States, is calculated to include people whose incomes are:

3 times a low-cost food budget

Preparation for many aspects of adult life begins during childhood and adolescence, and continues through our lives as we prepare for new responsibilities, through a process of

anticipatory socialization

Ravi was born into a society with a caste system. How likely is it that he will change his caste?

Not at all likely, because his caste status is assigned at birth

Religious beliefs would be an example of

nonmaterial culture

The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Bill and Hillary. They plan to buy Bill a Tonka truck and Hillary a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of __________ by parents.

gender socialization

Social __________ is the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige.


The sociologist who conducted extensive research on varying rates of suicide within a specific country and among different countries was

Emile Durkheim.

Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated that:

because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.

A specific form of deviance that involves the violation of rules that have been written into law is called __________.


Symbols include all of the following

sounds, gestures, colors, objects

A theorist who sees the law as an instrument of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in their privileged positions would be considered a(n) __________ theorist.


Tony is five years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead's theory, he is in the ________ stage.

play stage

Traditionally, statuses men occupy (father, husband) are given greater prestige than those occupied by women (mother, wife). This awarding of privilege and prestige to one group while denying it to the other is called ________.

social inequality

The typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers, is referred to as ________.

social structure

Updating Weber, Gilbert and Kahl develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries. In addition to the criteria of wealth, power and prestige, they included __________ in their model.


Upon graduating from a small Midwestern high school, Joe enrolls in a large, west coast university. He observes that his classmates use different slang terms and wear clothing that is quite different from that worn in his old high school. Joe begins to adopt the behavior patterns of his new college peers who are now his:

reference group

Use Robert Merton's structural strain theory to classify the deviance type illustrated by the recent wave of corporate financial scandal.


Viewing society as being comprised of groups that engage in competition for scarce resources is the underlying premise in

conflict theory.

What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?

intimate physical contact

What is the difference between values and norms?

Values are abstract, general concepts, whereas norms are specific guidelines for behavior

What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects shared by a particular people?


When Hector came home an hour after his curfew, his parents took away his car keys for one week. His parents' response was a type of


When Napster first enabled users to exchange music files on the Internet, recording companies cried "foul" even though there were no laws to limit such exchanges. This gap between social norms and technology provides an illustration of

cultural lag

Which of the following statements best reflects the reality of income inequality in the United States over the past 30 years?

incomes of the poor have declined while the incomes of the rich have increased

Which sociological perspective is most likely to emphasize that every aspect of culture is intertwined with others and contributes to the culture as a whole?

functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective would be most interested in the reaction that a vacationer might have at encountering nudism at a beach on a Caribbean island?

symbolic interactionist perspective

While vacationing in Great Britain, you discover that the British drive on the wrong side of the road, speak with a funny accent, and eat weird foods. Your attitudes are an expression of


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