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US History Study quizlet🤑
Ch. 8 Confederation to Constitution 1776-1791
Terms in this set (51)
Land Ordinance of 1785
Law that established a plan for dividing the federally owned lands west of the Appalachian Mountains
Articles of Confederation
a document, adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new United States. The Articles left important powers to the states.
New Jersey Plan
a plan of government proposed at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 that called for a one-house legislature in which each state would have one vote
it described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed and set conditions for settlement and settlers' rights
a meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation; resulted in the drafting of the Constitution
an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers protesting increased state taxes in 1787, this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes.
the Constitutional Convention's agreement to establish a two-house national legislature, with all states having equal representation in one house and each state having representation based on its population in the other house
territory covered by the Land Ordinance of 1785, which included land that formed the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota
a plan proposed by Edmund Randolph, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, that proposed a government with three branches and a two-house legislature in which representation would be based on a state's population or wealth
the constitutional convention's agreement to count three-fifths of a state's slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation
The American Revolution was not just a war, it was a change in ideas about government.Idea that instead of a king, the people would rule. The government would obtain its authority from the citizens and be responsible to them.
African American female who sued for freedom in a Massachusetts court and won in 1781. It helped end slavery in Massachusetts.
A preacher helped start the Free African Society that encouraged African Americans to help each other.
The trail into Kentucky that Daniel Boone helped build for settlers.
The people choose representatives to govern themselves.
Delegate, Father of the Constitution, contributor to the Federalists Papers.
A system of government in which power is shared between the central, or Federal government and the states.Federalists
People who supported the Constitution.
People who opposed the Constitution. They thought the Constitution took too much power away from the states and did not guarantee rights for the people.
The Federalists Papers
The Federalists did not sit still while the Antifederalists attacked the Constitution. They wrote essays to answer the Antifederalists' attacks. In the Federalists papers, Alexander Hamilton described why people should support ratification.
Was one of the strongest supporters of the bill of rights.(was from Virginia) In 1776, he had written the bill of rights for Virginia's constitution. After the Constitutional Convention refused to include a bill of rights, Mason joined the Anitfederalists.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Seven Principles of the Constitution
1. Popular Sovereinty
4. Seperation of Powers
5. Checks and Balances
6. Limited Government
7. Individual Rights
"authority of the people" means that the government can't effect people rights or cause hurt to them. Gov't cant tell people what to do or who to do it. A government in which the people rule.
a form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
Seperation of Powers
The division of a central government into two or more branches, each having its own responsibilites and authorities.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power so that the branches work together fairly.
In this type of government everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited positions.
Theses are protected by the Bill of Rights and include economic rights related to property, political rights related to freedom of speech and press, and personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences. The first ten admenments are called the Bill of Rights.
What are the strengths of the Articles of Confederation?
Treaty of Paris was signed, Northwest Ordinance was posted, power to declare war and peace, print money, make treaties, and settle state disputes.
Won the American Revolution and passed the Northwest Ordinance.
What are the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
Debt because the national government had no power to levy taxes. Domestic disturbances because the national government had no power to enforce laws. States were also quarreling because they taxed each others' goods that crossed into their state. It lacked power to enforce laws, levy taxes, and regulate trade.
What are the issues at the convention? (Representation in the Congress-Should it be based on population or should it be equal and should slaves count for population?)
3/5 Compromise and Great Compromise
How did the 3/5 Compromise resolve the conflicts at the convention?
The constitutional convention's agreement to count three-fifths of a state's slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation.
How did the Great Compromise resolve the conflicts at the convention?
The Constitutional Convention's agreement to establish a two-house national legislature, with all states having equal representation in one house and each state having representation based on its population in the other house.
Why were some against ratifying the Constitution?
They were called anti-federalists and there was no bill of rights in the Constitution. (A Bill of Rights was added later)
Why were some for ratifying the Constitution?
They were called Federalists and in favor of creating a stronger national government.
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury.
He served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
What was the impact of the Federalists Papers?
They explained the need for a strong central government and explained how the Constitution would not lead to tyranny.
How did the Articles of Confederation lead to a call for a stronger national government?
Many were afraid that Shay's Rebellion might spread to other parts of the country and that the United States might break apart and that some states might join other European countries. These problems led to the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention in 1787. Our country would replace the Articles of Confederation with a Federal system of government. The national government would be much stronger and be able to regulate trade between the states and enforce national laws.
What is the significance of 1787?
Delegates voted to supported the Constitution.
What powers did the government have under the Articles of Confederation?
Wage war, make peace, sign treaties, issue money
How did Shay's Rebellion affect people's views on the Articles of Confederation?
It convinced many people that a new national government, with stronger powers, was needed.
What groups of people were not represented at the Constitutional Convention?
Native Americans, African Americans, and women
What were some things the delegates agreed on at the convention?
1. New government should be a republic
2. Protect people's rights
What compromises did the delegates make during the convention?
1. 3/5 Compromise
2. Great Compromise
Why did some states think that it was necessary to add a bill of rights to the Constitution?
Because a tyrannical government might abuse individual liberties.
U.S. Constitution - Separation of Powers
Article 1: Legislative Branch - Congress makes the laws.
Article 2: Executive Branch - President enforces the laws.
Article 3: Judicial Branch - Supreme Court interprets the laws.
How does the Constitution reflect the principle of separation of powers?
Articles 1, 2, and 3 divide roles of government into three branches, legislative, judicial, executive
1. Senate (2 senators from each state)
2. House of Representatives - Representatices shall voice the views and concerns of the people.
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