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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Nealk2013 Civil War and Reconstruction
Nealk2013 Civil War and Reconstruction Spanish
Terms in this set (55)
laws that kept slaves from either running away or rebelling, if they ran away it was illegal to harbor them, it also had some laws to protect them but they were ignored since slaves didn't have the right to a court (presursor to Black Codes)
Granparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles, and cousins (enslaved) formed a close-knit group
reasons for slavery
helped the north get food as well as the south, slavery was in some people's interpretation of the Bible,slaves were fed and clothed
reasons against slavery
how could you own something that had a soul?, slaves had no legal marriages, no protection, rarely were treated when sick
remove from the union
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and was comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers.
Confederacy or CSA
Rebeled against the USA in the civil war. Fought over many things such as states' rights and slavery
Election of 1860
Lincoln was elected president without winning any states that would form the Confederacy. Southern states began seceding from the union before the inauguration.
From 1860-1865, he was the president of the Southern Confederate States after their succession from the Union.
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860.
Robert E. Lee
A top graduate of West Point, Lee distinguished himself as an exceptional soldier in the U.S. Army for thirty-two years. Opposed slavery but fought for states rights. Eventual leader of Confederate army.
Banking, Factories, Ships
More railroads to transport supplies, equipment and men.
Larger Population; 22 million to 9 million
Trading with Europe
Best Military Officers
Long Coast lines make it difficult to blockade
Fighting on own soil
Land in South is heavily wooded making easy ambushes and retreats
Said that if a state did not agree with a Federal Law, it could ignore it (followed from Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions and the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification)
Battle of Antietam
bloodiest single-day battle in American history, ended hope of European intervention on part of Confederacy, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Given by President Lincoln following the battle of Antietam, it stated that all slaves in areas of rebellion would be freed. It did not include the Border States.
John Wilkes Booth
a crazed actor and Confederate zealot, who assassinated President Lincoln at Ford's Theater in 1865.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States
war of attrition
A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union (1865-1877)
A Southerner from Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed Radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
54th Massachusetts Regiment
a famous African-American unit in the Union army; led an attack on Ft. Wagner near Charleston, SC
Sherman's March to the Sea
After the burning of Atlanta Georgia on Nov 15 1864, he marched 300 miles to Savannah and arrived there December 22nd 1864 with the 1st Alabama cavalry regiment.
Legacy of the Civil War
• Federal gov't assumed supreme national authority.
• States rights has continued as a political issue
• Growth of federal power—income tax, suspension of civil rights, currency
• National banking acts: system of federally chartered banks
• Funding of RR construction
• *The southern economy was DEVASTATED
• Between 1860 and 1870 the south's % of wealth went from 30% to 12%
• South is still poorest region of US
it called for amnesty for all who took a "Loyalty Oath", and had states ratify the 13th amendment, abolish slavery in their Constitutions, repudiate debts incurred while in rebellion and declare secession "null and void"
Civil Rights Act
prohibited discrimination in public places- Supreme Court declared illegal
Military Reconstruction Act
passed by Radical Republicans. It was harsh and intended to punish the south. 1. divide the south into 5 military districts, 2. place Union Generals as governors, 3. draw up new Constitutions for states giving Blacks the right to vote, 4. make the states ratify the 14th amendment, 5. allow only blacks and loyal whites to vote, keeping most southern whites out of government for a long time
Johnson appointed generals, as governors who would not enforce the law. This enraged Republicans in congress.
Tenure of Office Act
Pres. Johnson can't remove federal workers without permission of congress, Johnson's violation of this law led to his impeachment
Impeachment of Johnson
found innocent by one vote
Compromise of 1877
Hayes ended Reconstruction and promised to help the south in return he was chosen as president
1862- free land (160 acres) if you settle and develop, moves a large population west
Morrill Land Grant Act
provided land for funds so that every state could have a "land grant" college focussing on science, agricultural, and home making arts
Laws passed in Southern states to regulate the activities of former slaves after the Civil War, they restricted Blacks' rights to marry, to own property, to hold or change jobs, to use public places, serve on juries, marry whites, and carry weapons. Laws were designed to deprive former slaves of their Constitutional rights.
Compromise of 1877
after no Presidential Candidate got enough votes to win the election of 1876, southern delegates offered to cast their votes for Rutherford B. Hayes if he agreed to do the following, 1. withdraw all Federal Troops from the south, 2. appoint a southerner to his Cabinet, 3. support government spending for internal improvements in the South, 4. give Conservative Southern Democrats control of part of local patronage
The Direct Cost and Indirect Cost of Civil War
$5 Billion and $15 Billion, all losses of life and property were even more dramatic because all killed were American
"waving the bloody shirt"
An expression used as a vote getting stratagem by the Republicans during the election of 1876 to offset charges of corruption by blaming the Civil War on the Democrats.
Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. They carried their belongings in carpetbags, and most intended to settle in the South and make money there. Part of the radical government, they passed much needed reforms.
a white Southerner who joined the Republican Party during the Reconstruction period. they were also considered traitors to the Southern cause. Part of the radical government, they passed much needed reforms.
a system used on Southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops, trapped former slaves in an endless cycle of poverty and white dominance
Largely former slave owners. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments.
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876. A political reformer who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and federal levels
(equal protection clause, due process clause, and dual citizenship)
Overturned Dred Scott case. President Johnson lobbied against state ratification, an act that further strained relations between he and the Republicans in Congress.
Provided suffrage to all black males, causes strife with some white female suffragists.
Initially, over 600 African-Americans were elected to state3 legislatures and 16 to Congress.
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population. Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American were targeted
Advoated military occupation of the south and enactment of 14th and 15th amendments, eventually impeached President Johnson.
(eg Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens)
Lincoln's "Ten Percent" Plan (Reconstruction)
Provided for a full pardon for all but highest ranking Confederate officials, 10% of 1860 electorate had to take oath
Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural (1864)
"malice toward none with charity for all","to bind up the nation's wounds"
Secretary of War fired by President Johnson, leading to Johnson's impeachment. The real cause for impeachment was Johnson's attempts to hinder the Congressioanl Republican's programs.
Ex Parte Milligan (1866)
Supreme Court decision involving presidential war powers; civilians could not be tried in military courts in wartime when the federal courts were functioning.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Civil Rights Cases
Civil Rights Act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the fourteenth amendment protected people from governmental infringement of rights and had no effect on acts of private citizens
Recommended textbook explanations
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT
United States History
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell
Creating America: A History of the United States
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