The tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain.
A cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service.
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
The maximum amount of a renewable resource that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource.
Resource conversation ethic
The belief that people should maximize use of resources, based on the greatest good for everyone.
A U.S. classification used to designate lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timer harvesting, and mineral extraction.
A dry open grassland.
Land dominated by trees and other woody vegetation and sometimes used for commercial logging.
A method of harvesting trees that involves removing all or almost all of the trees withing an area.
The method of harvesting trees that involves the removal of single trees or a relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest.
Ecologically sustainable forestry
An approach to removing trees from forests in ways that do not unduly affect the viability of other trees.
A large area typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species.
A fire is deliberately set under controlled conditions in order to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass on a forest floor.
National wildlife refuge
A federal public land managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife.
National wilderness area
An area set aside with the intent of preserving a large tract of intact ecosystem or a landscape.
A set of principles for community planning that focuses on strategies to encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities.
Environmental mitigation plan
A plan that outlines how a developer will address concerns raised by a project's impact on the environment.
An area surrounding a metropolitan center, with a comparatively low population density.
An area similar to a suburb, but are unconnected to any central city or densely populated area.
Urbanized areas that spread into rural areas, removing clear boundaries between the two.
The degradation of the build and social environments of the cite that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs.
Highway Trust Fund
A U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways.
The phenomenon in which an increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow.
A planning tool used to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods.
A zoning classification that allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
A 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.
Environmental impact statement (EIS)
A document outlining the scope and purpose of a developmental project, describing the environmental context, suggesting alternative approaches to the project, and analyzing the environmental impact of each alternative.
A person or organization with an interest in a particular place or issue.
Sense of place
The feeling that an area has a distinct and meaningful character.
Transit-oriented development (TOD)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth.
Development that fills in vacant lots within existing communities.
Urban growth boundaries
A restriction on development outside a designated area.
A principle that grants government power to acquire a property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish to sell it
Endangered Species Act
A 1973 U.S. act designed to protect species from extinction.