31 terms

IGCSE Population Dynamics

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Carrying capacity
the largest population that the resources of a given environment can support.
Demographers
people who study human populations.
Population explosion
the rapid population growth of the developing world in the post-1950 period.
Demographic momentum
although the global population growth rate has been declining for decades, the number of people added each year remains very high because there are currently so many women in the child-bearing age range.
Birth rate
the number of live births per thousand population in a year.
Death rate
the number of deaths per thousand population in a year.
Rate of natural change
the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. If it is positive, it is termed natural increase. If it is negative it is known as natural decrease.
Immigration rate
the number of immigrants per thousand population entering a receiving country in a year.
Emigration rate
the number of emigrants per thousand population leaving a country of origin in a year.
Rate of net migration
the difference between the rates of immigration and emigration.
Demographic transition model
a model illustrating the historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population.
Social norms
the general attitudes of a population to important issues such as family size, contraception, religion, politics etc.
Rural-to-urban migration
the movement of significant numbers of people from the countryside to towns and cities.
Age-specific mortality rates
mortality rates specific to a single year of age, for example the infant mortality rate, or an age range, for example the child mortality rate.
Total fertility rate
the average number of children a woman has during her lifetime.
Infant mortality rate
the number of deaths of children under one year of age per thousand live births per year.
Life expectancy at birth
the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live under current mortality levels.
Demographic divide
the difference between countries where population growth remains high and those with very slow growing, stagnant or declining populations.
Depopulation
a decline in the number of people in a population.
Optimum population
the best balance between a population and the resources available to it. This is usually viewed as the population giving the highest average living standards in a country.
Under population
when there are too few people in an area to use the resources available effectively.
Overpopulation
when there are too many people in an area relative to the resources and the level of technology available.
Underemployment
a situation where people are working less than they would like to and need to in order to earn a reasonable living.
Population policy
encompasses all of the measures taken by a government aimed at in influencing population size, growth, distribution, or composition.
Pro-natalist policies
policies that promote larger families. Anti-natalist policies: policies that aim to reduce population growth.
Population density
The number of individuals in an area of a specific size - how many people live in a given space.
Population distribution
Where people are found 'distributed' (spread) around the world
Population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Economically active
Those aged between 16-64 who are eligible to work
Anti Natalist policy
Population policies to slow population growth by reducing births.
Dependency ratio
The number of people who are too young or too old to work
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