Denny Chapter 2 Study Q's
Terms in this set (45)
What do the inhabitant of the Arabian Peninsula call their land?
The island of Arabs
In what part of Arabia was Islam born?
To what language group do the Arabs belong? From who do we get the term? Who was this person's father? Name two other languages that are in this language group.
Semites. The term comes from Shem, one of Noah's sons who came forth from the Ark after the flood. Hebrew and Aramaic
What are the two branches of the Arabs? From where do those who consider themselves the "aboriginal" Arabs come? Who do they say are their "biblical" forebears?
Northern and Southern. The Southerners are considered aboriginals, they say they descend from Joktan, the grandson of Shem.
What are the origins of the other Arab group? Who are they the descendents of?
The northerners are considered to have been naturalized to Arabism. They are thought to have descended from Adnan, a distant descendent of Ishmael.
Which part of pre-Islamic Arabia is claimed by Islam? Why is it called the al-Jahiliyaperiod? What does this Arabic word mean literally?
Hejaz. al-Jahiliya literally means the ignorance and it is assigned to that period because this is considered pre-Islamis, meaning they were wild, barbarious and knew nothing of the truth. It was meant to discredit the idolatry and ways of the time before Islam changed that.
What was the dominant pattern of life?
Pastoralist, and people divided into independent tribes.
What was the major division within the population?
Genealogy, tribal and clan divisions. There were pastoralists and a nomads.
Was the Arabian way of life progressive or conservative?
Conservative, rare change and less welcome to it.
What were the main ways of earning a livelihood?
Raising camels and sheep, hunting and occasionally serving as bodyguards or escorts.
Why was raiding (ghazwa) practiced? What were its rules?
Because Bedouins could only add to their wealth by and considered a sport. The rules were to avoid blood-shed and to journey on a secret circuitous route.
Why was personal honor so important?
It was a man's most valuable possession and an attack on it could warrant a deadly retaliation. 'ird. It was protected by a man's murawa.
What was the Arab's major form of artistic expression?
Who provided the poets with their special insights and knowledge?
Shaytan or jinni
What type of Arabic was used by poets?
Why is it said that "Poetry is the public register of the Arabs"?
Because without pre-islamic poetry we would know far less about the Jahiliya Arabs than we do know. This culture also made them more receptive to the poetry of the Quran.
What did the pre-Islamic Arabs worship?
Nature and objects, stones, trees, wells, sacred precincts connected with the tribe's origins. Their deities.
What is the Ka'ba? How many deities were found there? Were they male deities only?
The Ka'ba is Mecca's archaic sanctuary. 360 deities. There were female deities.
Who were the "daughters of Allah? What were their names? What was distinctive about each?
They were deities in the Kaba.
al-Uzza(VENUS and chief deity of Quraysh, took human sacrifices)
al-Lat, the goddes whose sacred precincts near al-Ta were where no hunting and killing could occur.
Manat the goddess of fate and destiny
Who was the high god of the Arabs?
Hubal, an anthropomorphic deity, name means vapor or spirit.
What was "Tribal Humanism"?
The constellation of basic attitudes that Hejazi Arabs share - manliness, honor, hospitality, the equitable distribution of goods, the shaykh as first among equals, raiding as a display of courage, the vendetta, and devotion to one's genealogy.
What happened to the values, social practices and customs to the Arabs/Bedouins after they became sedentary and more into money economies?
They were broken down, especially the even distribution of goods and protection of weaker members.
Were there representative communities of Jews in Southern Arabia and in Yathrib prior to the coming of Islam? Were there Christians there also?
Yes and yes
Were there biblical subjects' pictures inside the Ka'ba in pre-Islamic times?
Who were theHanifs?
Monotheistic arabs who were neither Jewish nor Christians
How did the Roman Catholic Church view Arabia and its inhabitants?
as a "breeding ground of heresies". because of its polytheism and its inability to regulate the different types of Christianity that existed in the area.
What was the status of Mecca in the period before Islam's coming?
It had recently gained vast wealth and regional prestige.
Who ruled Mecca in the period before Islam's coming?
An oligarchy of leading commercial families.
powerful group feeling in the clan and tribes
A number of tents(families) pitched together
Several related clans, or quams, together make a Qabila, or a tribe
Each clan has a shaykh, or chieftan called a Banu Hashim
The Shakyh of a clan
law of retaliation,
Personal honor, only men could have 'ird
manliness, which protected his 'ird
The standard genre of arabic poetry.
a shamanistic practitioner whose attunement to surroundings and people, plus a gift of trance and ecstasy, enabled him or her to diving the future, find lost camels, and heal.
A poet, "one who knows".
Satan, one who was believed to have given insight to poets.
one of those creatures of fire who people believed gave poets insight and knowledge.
when Muhammed and his fellow emigrants moved from Mecca to Yathrib, which became Medina.
Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca
forebearance, great spiritual and physical strength and courage