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science test

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What is when something produces a fertile offspring when genetic materials from 2 different sex cells combine.
sexual reproduction
What is the female sex cell
egg
What does a female sex cell produce
ovary
What is a male sex cell
sperm
What does sperm produce
testis
What are the 2 kinds of cells that organisms reproduce
Body&sex cells
What types of cells are body cells
diploid cells
what does a zygote need the exact amount of to develop
chromosomes
Different organisms have.....
different chromosomes
what are pairs of chromosomes that have genes for the same trait arranged in the same order
Homologous chromosomes
what types of cells are sex cells
haploid cells
What is when one diploid cell divides to make 4 haploid cells
Meiosis
What are the 2 divisions meiosis involves in
the nucleus, cytoplasm
during meiosis 1, each pair of duplicated homologous chromosomes do what
separate
During meiosis 2, what separates to produce 4 haploid cells
sister chromatids
Meiosis forms sex cells with the correct haploid number of what to maintain the correct diploid number of chromosomes in an organism when sex cells join
chromosomes
T or F: meiosis creates genetic variation by producing the SAME cells
F: different cells
During what and cell division a body cell and it's nucleus divide once and produce two identical cells
Mitosis
when an egg cell and a sperm cell join
fertilization
pair of chromosomes in which one chromosome inherited from each parent
homologous chromosomes
what is the new cell formed by the joining of a sperm and an egg
zygote
Compare and contrast the events of meiosis 1 and meiosis 11
Homologous pairs of cells are present in meiosis I and separate into chromosomes before meiosis II. In meiosis II, these chromosomes are further separated into sister chromatids. Meiosis I includes crossing over or recombination of genetic material between chromosome pairs, while meiosis II does not.
Explain the importance of meiosis
The importance is, to produce sex cells by dividing one diploid cell to make 4 haploid cells to use for sexual reproduction to make offspring.
In what does one parent organism produces offspring without meiosis or fertilization
Asexual reproduction
when offspring inherit all of their DNA from one parent they are...
genetically identical
Cell division in prokaryotes is known as
fission
What is when unicellular organisms reproduce by dividing into 2 offspring through mitosis and cell division
mitotic cell division
What is when a new organism grows on the body of its parent by mitosis and cell division
budding
What is when a new animal grows from a piece of its parent
animal regeneration
What is a form of asexual reproduction in which offspring grow from apart of a parent plant
vegetative reproduction
what produces identical individuals from a cell or cluster of cells taken from a multicellular organism
cloning
Some plants can be cloned from just a few cells using a technique that takes what
tissue culture
Some animals have been cloned using what from a cell in one parent
nucleus
T or F: meiosis and fertilization are not apart of asexual rep.
T
T or F: a hydra grows a new hydra on its body using a form of asexual rep called budding
T
Examples of things that can reproduce during regeneration
sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers
T or F all of a clone's DNA comes from BOTH parents
F, ONE
what are genetic changes that can occur and then be passed to offspring, this can affect the ability to survive
mutations
What are the advantages of sex rep.
variation, protection to changes in the environment, choosing for desired traits
Disadvantages of sex. rep.
Takes more time, takes more energy, finding a mate takes both
Advantages of asexual rep
organisms can produce without a mate, takes less time, takes less energy
Disadvantages of asexual rep.
if one organism gets a disease, all of the future offspring will have those diseases too, if the parent has a deformity the offspring will have it too.
Write an example of asexual reproduction and an organism that uses it
An example are potato plants because if you grow one potato, then you can grow many more with the one bud on it.
Difference between fission and mitotic cell division
Fission occurs among prokaryotes: bacteria and Mitotic cell division occurs among eukaryotes: plants and animals.
Similarities between fission and mitotic cell division
they are both methods of cell division used by various organisms
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