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O: zygomatic arch
I: Masseteric fossa and adjacent portions of mandible
A: elevation of madible


O: temporal bone and zygomatic arch
I: coronoid process of the mandible
A: Elevates mandible


O: mastoid and jugular process
I: medial ventral border of the mandible
A: depresses the mandible


O: cranial end of the manubrium
I: ridge and mastoid portion of the temporal bone
A: flexion of the head as a pair; turns the head individually


O: Clavicle
I: Mastoid process of temporal bone
A: clavicle stationaryturns head; head stationarymoves clavicle anteriorly


O: first costal cartilage
I: Hyoid bone
A: retracts the hyoid


O: first costal cartilage
I: Thyroid cartilage of larynx
A: Retracts the larynx


O: Median raphe, close to xiphoid process
I: ventral border of the humerous
A: draws forelimb towards the midline

Pectoralis Minor

O: six sternebrae and xiphoid process
I: ventral border of the humerous
A: draws forelimb towards the midline

Pectoralis Major

O: cranial half of the sternum and midventral raphe
I: Proximal 2/3s of the shaft of the humerous
A: draws forelimb towards the midline, and turns the manus forward


O: Manubrium of the sternum
I: superficial faschia of the antebrachium above elbow
A: draws the forelimb towards the midline


O: clavicle and raphe between clavotrapezius and clavobrachialis
I: medial surface of the ulna distal
A: flexes the forearm

Latissimus Dorsi

O: Neural spines
I: medial surface of humerous at proximal end
A: Pulls forelimb dorsocaudally


O: spinous process of thoracic vertebrae
I: fascia of supra/infraspinous muscles
A: Pulls scapula dorsally and caudally


O: spine of the scapula
I: deltoid ridge of the humerous
A: retracts the humerous and rotates it outward


O: Middorsal line from axis to fourth thoracic vertebrae
I: Metacromiom process and spine of scapula
A: adduct and stabalizes position of the scapula

Levator scapulae ventralis

O: transverse process of atlas and basiooccipital
I: infraspinous fossa
A: Pulls scapula cranially


O: middorsal raphe over spine of axis
I: Clavicle and raphe
A: Protracts the humerus


O: Acromion of the scapula
I: Surface of the spinodeltoid muscle
A: Retracts the humerus and rotates it laterally


O: Supraspinous fossa
I: Greater tuberosity of the humerous
A: Protracts the humerous

Triceps brachii

O: long head (scapula); medial & lateral heads (humerus)
I: ulna
A: extends the forearm

Biceps brachii

O: glenoid fossa of the scapula
I: radial tuberosity
A: flexes forearm. Tends to supinate the manus; stabilizes shoulder joint


O: subscapular fossa
I: lesser tuberosity of the humerous
A: adducts the humerous

Teres Major

O: cranial border of the scapula
I: proximal end of the humerous
A: retracts humerous and rotates it medially


O: humerous
I: styloid process of the radius
A: Supinates the manus


O: Lateral surface of humerous
I: lateral surface of ulna near semilunar notch
A: flexes forearm

Extensor carpi radialis longus

O: Humerous
I: base of the second metacarpal
A: Extends the manus

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

O: humerous
I: base of the third metacarpal
A: Extends the manus

Extensor digitorium communis

O: Humerous
I: dorsal surface of the phalanges, and 2-5 digits
A: extension of the 2-5 digits

Extensor digitorium lateralis

O: Humerous
I: dorsolateral surface of phalanges of the digits
A: Extends the digits

Extensor carpi ulnaris

O: lateral epicondyle of humerous
I: base of the fifth metacarpal
A: extension of carpals of ulnar side

Flexor carpi ulnaris

O: Humerous
I: pisiform bone of the carpals
A: wrist flexor

Flexor digitorum superficialis

O: medial epicondyle of humerous
I: middle phalanx of digits 2-5
A: flexes the digits

Serratus ventralis

O: surface of first 10 ribs and last five cervical ribs
I: Vertebral border of the scapula
A: draws scapula towards thoracic wall/ supports scapula


O: midorsal line of neck and adjacent fascia
I: Along the lambdoidal ridge of the occipital bone
A: elevate or extend the head; individually flex head laterally

Serratus dorsalis

O: midorsal fascia
I: outer surface of ribs
A: draws ribs cranially (anterior portion); draws ribs caudally (posterior portion)

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