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Science Test (DNA) Jaci
Terms in this set (42)
A cell uses a ____________ that is stored in its ____________________ material.
code / hereditary material
A cell uses a code that is stored in its hereditary material. The code is a chemical called deoxyribonucleic.
Chemical called deoxyribonucleic
DNA is stored in a cell that has a _____________________.
When a cell _____________ the DNA code is ________________ and _________ to new cells.
divides / stored and passed
New cells receive the same coded information that was in ________________________.
the original cell
Since the mid ________________ scientists have known that the nuclei of cells contain large molecules called nucleic acid.
In 1952 _______________________ discovered that DNA is two chains of molecules in a spiral from.
________________________ found that DNA is two chains of molecules in a spiral form.
X - ray Technique
In 1953 _________________________ and __________________ used the work of Franklin and made a model a DNA molecule.
James Watson and Francis Crick
Each chromosome is composed of a long strand of DNA wrapped around _______________________.
The DNA molecule, called a ________________ looks like a twisted ladder.
Each side of the DNA ladder is made up of ____________________________ molecules.
The rungs of the ladder are made up of other molecules called _________________________.
4 kinds of nitrogen bases are found in DNA
adenine A / guanine G / cytosine C / thymine T
The amount of _____________ in cells always equals the amount of ______________________ and __________________ always pairs with __________________________.
cytosine / guanine / adenine / thymine
cytosine equals amount of
adenine always pairs with
Copying DNA - Original DNA
Step 1 - An enzyme separates DNA sides and the two strands of DNA separate
Step 2 - New bases pair with bases on the original DNA
Step 3 - Sugar and phosphate groups form the sides of each new DNA strand.
Two new DNA molecule now contain one strand of the original DNA and one new strand.
The instructions for making ______________ _______________ are found in __________________.
specific proteins / genes
A ___________________is a section of DNA on a chromosome.
The ____________ _______________ _____________ _______________ are carried from the nucleus to the ribosome by another type of nucleic acid called ribonucleic - __________________.
codes for making protein / RNA
At the ribosome the RNA's message is ________________________________.
translated into a specific protein
RNA is made in the nucleus. RNA is like a ladder that has all it rungs sawed _____________________________.
RNA has bases A,G and C like DNA but has the base ____________________ instead of thymine (T)
The sugar - phosphate molecules in RNA contain the sugar _____________________, not deoxyribose.
3 kinds of RNA
a. mRNA - carries the code for making protein from the nucleus to the ribosome
b. rRNA - ribosomal RNA - ribosomes are made of rRNA
c. tRNA - transfer RNA - brings amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes.
mistakes or any permanent changes in the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome of a cell.
mutations happen when
DNA is not copied exactly
outside factors have been known to cause mutations such as
X-rays, sunlight, and some chemicals
What structure contains the instructions for making specific protein?
What makes up the sides of the ladder of a DNA molecule?
sugar and phosphate
How is RNA different from DNA?
DNA thyme / RNA uracil
What role does RNA play in cell life?
code to make a protein
What are the three kinds of RNA and what does each do?
m = messenger RNA caries code to make protein
r = ribosomal RNA ribosome are made of RNA
t = transfer RNA brings amino acid the ribosomes.
What causes mutations?
sunlight, exposure to chemicals, also extra chromosomes
__________________ is a double spiral molecule with pairs of nitrogen bases.
RNA differs from DNA in that it contains ____________________.
The type of sugar in DNA is _______________________________.
The type of sugar in RNA is _____________________________.
A gene is a _________________ of DNA.
_______________________________ are structures in the nucleus that contain DNA.
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