83 terms

PSYC 320 Exams 1-3

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The first-pass effect occurs when drugs are taken
orally
Depot binding is said to occur when drugs
bind to inactive sites
Drug metabolism mostly occurs in the ??? and usually makes a drug more ??? soluble
Drug metabolism mostly occurs in the liver and usually makes a drug more water soluble
Which of the following about drug clearance by first-order kinetics is FALSE?
A. molecules of drug are cleared at a constant rate regardless of drug concentration
B. molecules of drug are cleared at an exponential rate
C. a constant fraction of the free drug in the blood is removed in each time interval
D. Clearance of most drugs occurs in this manner
A. molecules of drug are cleared at a constant rate regardless of drug concentration

this is zero-order kinetics
which of the following is NOT a component of pharmacokinetics?
A. route of administration
B. absorption and distribution
C. binding
D. mechanism of action
E. inactivation
D. mechanism of action

this is part of pharmacodynamics
Proteins, such as receptors and enzymes, are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the soma in a process called
translation
The term "hyperpolarization" refers to
movement of the resting membrane potential farther from threshold
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials are generally caused by ??? channels opening while inhibitory postsynaptic potentials may be caused by ??? channels.
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials are generally caused by Na+ channels opening while inhibitory postsynaptic potentials may be caused by Cl- channels.
When activated somatodendritic auto receptors...
reduce the rate of cell firing
Ligand-gated ion channels are ???; G-protein coupled receptors are ???.
Ligand-gated ion channels are fast/ionotropic; G-protein coupled receptors are slow/metabotropic.
The primary treatment for Parkinson's disease is the administration of L-DOPA because this drug
is the synthetic precursor to DA
What pathway most accurately represents the synthesis of the catecholamines?
Tyrosine → DOPA → dopamine → norepinephrine
The two most important enzymes in the metabolism of monoamines are:
catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase
The DA pathway most important for regulating movement is the ??? pathway
nigrostriatal pathway
The major difference between D1 and D2 DA receptor subtypes is that one...
inhibits and one stimulates adenylyl cyclase and cAMP
the main Location of noradrenergic cell bodies in the CNS is...
the locus coerulus
All 5-HT receptors are ??? except for the ??? receptor which is ???.
All 5-HT receptors are metabotropic except for the 5-HT3 receptor which is ionotropic.
Black widow spider venom produces its effects by ??? while botulinum toxin causes its effects by ???
Black widow spider venom produces its effects by causing massive release of ACh while botulinum toxin causes its effects by preventing release of ACh
Myasthenia graves...
involves an autoimmune process that destroys acetylcholine receptors
Because cholinergic interneurons are clustered in the ??? changes in cholinergic function can affect ???
Because cholinergic interneurons are clustered in the striatum changes in cholinergic function can affect movement
T/F
DA is a monoamine but NOT a catecholamine
FALSE
T/F
DA is a catecholamine but NOT a monoamine
FALSE
T/F
5-HT is a catecholamine but NOT a monoamine
FALSE
T/F
5-HT is a monoamine but NOT a catecholamine
TRUE
how do you name nAChRs?
couldn't put a picture on this
Look at the 5 subunits and name accordingly using just names of subunits OR subunits AND subscripts for number of each unit
i.e., α4β2 vs. (α4)₂(β2)₃
What does 6-OHDA do?
destroyed or damages catecholaminergic neurons
The ??? is a test of analgesia.
A. open field test
B. catalepsy test
C. tail-flick test
D. elevated T-maze
tail flick test
In micro dialysis...
analysis of the contents of the extracellular fluid can be made.
Which of the following is NOT part of the procedure and/or interpretation of radioligand binding?
A. tissue is incubated with radiolignad
B. specificity is measured by adding radioactive competing ligand
C. satiability is measured by adding increasing amounts of ligand.
D. reversibility is measured by showing displacement of ligand by drug
B. specificity is measured by adding radioactive competing ligand
In radioligand binding studies, ??? represents the number of binding sties and ??? is an indication of receptor affinity.
In radioligand binding studies, Bmax represents the number of binding sties and Kd is an indication of receptor affinity.
Researchers use 2-DG autoradiography to...
identify regions of the brain with high metabolic activity

NOT covered in class; credit returned for this question
Cocaine acts in the nervous system by blocking ??? and ???
Cocaine acts in the nervous system by blocking monoamine transporters and voltage-gated sodium channels
What technique has allowed researchers to study the effects of psychostimulants on measures like DAT occupancy in the living human brain?
PET
Amphetamines increase catecholamine release in part by...
reversing the transporter
A decrease in ??? activity can lead to toxicity including flushing, nausea, and vomiting.
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
??? tolerance to alcohol results from a(n) ??? of liver enzymes.
Metabolic tolerance to alcohol results from a(n) induction of liver enzymes.
Which of the following is NOT seen during alcohol withdrawal?
A. decrease in DA levels in the NAcc
B. increase in the amount of current needed for intracranial brain stimulation
C. increase in Glu release
D. increase in chloride flux through GABA-A receptors
D. increase in chloride flux through GABA-A receptors

this effect occurs when consuming alcohol, so it is OPPOSITE during withdrawal
Which of the following regarding the role of the endogenous opioid system in alcohol's reinforcing effects if FALSE?
A. mice that lack the mu-opioid receptor do NOT self-administer alcohol
B. opioid receptor antagonists reduce alcohol self-administration in animals
C. clinical trials show that opioid receptor antagonists decrease relapse to drinking in humans
D. chronic alcohol use increases gene expression of endorphin
D. chronic alcohol use increases gene expression of endorphin and enkephalin

chronic alcohol use actually DECREASES gene expression of endorphin and enkaphalin
in general, the cellular effects of chronic alcohol on various NT systems are ??? the effects of acute alcohol administration
in general, the cellular effects of chronic alcohol on various NT systems are opposite to the effects of acute alcohol administration
All of the following are synthetic opioid drugs except for
A. fentanyl
B. propoxyphene
C. LAAM
D. codeine
D. codeine
Electrophysiological data from Schultz and colleagues show that DA cells in the VTA show an increase in rate of firing in response to a(n)
- novel stimulus
- unpredictable reward
- conditioned stimulus previously paired with a reward
Himmelsbach's classic model of opiate dependent as a disruption of homeostasis was confirmed physiologically by studying...
changes in cAMP synthesis
Below are the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) values of candidate antagonists for the mu opioid receptor. Which one has the greatest affinity for the receptor?
A. 1 mM
B. 1 ms
C. 0.1 mM
D. 0.1 ms
C. 0.1 mM
Measurement of DA release in the human brain can be measured by PEt. the amount of DA released is:
inversely proportional to the change in raclopride signaling

credit also given for: proportional to the change in raclopride signaling
T/F
Antagonism of mu opioid receptors has been shown to reduce relapse to drinking in humans with an alcohol use disorder.
TRUE
T/F
BOLD fMRI imaging can be used to measure real time DA interactions with the receptor in the brain.
FALSE
T/F
Cocaine causes a decrease in cAMP through D1 receptors, BUT an increase in cAMP through D2 receptors
FALSE
T/F
Opiates make effective anti-diarrheal medications.
TRUE
Two FDA-approved medications for alcohol use disorders are
- Disulfiram
- Acamprosate
The subtype of the opioid receptor that can lead to anxiety when stimulated is...
kappa receptor
Heroin is synthesized from
morphine plus two acetyl groups
Drug schedule of marijuana
schedule I
Drug schedule of cocaine
schedule II
Drug schedule of alcohol
Not scheduled
Drug schedule of Xanax
schedule IV
Studies of the behavioral and physiological effects of nicotine
show that nicotine decreases errors of omission and increases attention to nonsmokers
Which antidepressant is currently being used to help smokers withdraw from nicotine?
zyban (buproprion)
Acute anxiety can be most effectively treated with
benzodiazepine medications
Current evidence suggests that caffeine exerts its stimulant effects at the synapse by
blocking adenosine receptors
Which of the following about the endocannabinoids is FALSE?
A. they are synthesized by FAAH
B. They include arachidonic derivatives such as 2-AG and anandamide
C. They are not stored in vesicles
D. They are synthesized and released when needed, probably in response to Ca2+
A. They are synthesized by FAAH

they are broken down by FAAH
They major psychoactive ingredient of the marijuana plant is
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinoid
Oral administration of marijuana
leads to reduced blood levels due to first-pass metabolism and breakdown of the drug in the stomach
Inhibition of ??? is NOT a possible effector cannabinoids on the CB1 receptor.
K+ channel opening
Which of the following drugs is a CB1 antagonist?
Rimonabant
Which of the following is NOT primarily used for treating major depression?
A. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
B. lithium therapy
C. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-Is)
D. atypical antidepressants
lithium therapy
Which of the following about serotonin syndrome is FALSE?
A. it can occur when SSRIs are combined with other serotonin agonists
B. it is characterized by agitation and disorientation
C. symptoms include exaggerated autonomic nervous system activity
D. While frightening, the syndrome is not life-threatening
D. While frightening, the syndrome is not life-threatening
Most hallucinations resemble either ??? or ??? in their chemical structure.
Most hallucinations resemble either phenethylamines or indoleamines in their chemical structure.
What area of the brain coordinates the components of anxiety and other emotions?
Amygdala
In addition to the central nucleus of the amygdala, the ??? appears to play an important role in initiating emotional responses of anxiety when danger signals are unclear.
BNST
Which of the following is NOT a way that benzodiazepines affect GABA at the synapse?
A. they act as GABA antagonists
B. they result in a local hyper polarization
C. they cause an IPSP
D. they cause the chloride ion channel to open more frequently
A. they act as GABA antagonists

benzodiazepines AGONIZE GABA receptors
Tolerance develops to the ??? effects of barbiturates, but not to the ??? effects.
Tolerance develops to the sedative effects of barbiturates, but not to the respiratory-depressant effects.
The specific acetylcholine receptors which primarily mediate the reinforcing effects of nicotine are:
alpha4beta2 and alpha7
PCP and ketamine act on the postsynaptic cell by
acting as a NONcompetitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor
What are the components of the HPA axis?
hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal gland
Cannabinoids primarily act in the brain through CB1 receptors. How do CB1 receptors signal inside the postsynaptic cell?
They are metabotropic receptors which decrease cAMP and PKA activity and lead to K+ efflux through Gi protein activation
CRF can act as both a hormone and a NT in the brain.
TRUE
CRF acts a hormone but NOT a NT in the brain.
FALSE

CRF is both a hormone AND an NT in the brain
Varenicline acts as an antagonist of the alpha4beta2 nicotinic nAChR
FALSE

Varenicline acts as an AGONIST of the alpha4beta2 nicotinic nAChR
Chronic THC exposure is associated with down regulation of expression and activity of cannabinoid receptors
TRUE
The main components of magic mushrooms are psilocybin and psilocin
TRUE
PCP and ketamine are both antagonists of the NMDA receptor, but they bind at a different site than NMDA/glutamate
TRUE
List 2-non drug therapies for depression and related mood disorders
- electroconvulsive shock therapy
- cognitive behavioral therapy
- trans-cranial magnetic stimulation
- deep brain stimulation
Two nuclei of the amygdala
- central nucleus
- basolaternal nucleus
- lateral nucleus