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Terms in this set (70)
What are some historical facts during the time of Confucius? What are the factors that led him to seek a reformation in his day?
there was social anarchy; collaspse of the central government; many independent and warring states; constant war.
Aimed to recover the golden age of the Zhou Dynasty
What are two major questions that guided the reforms of Confucius?
1) What makes for a good person
2) Well makes for a harmonious society/good government
What is the Ru tradition? How does it relate to Confucius?
Scribes and rituals performs of the Zhou period, he later developed himself to teaching
What does Ren or benevolence mean/emphasize?
"Highest virtue" Chinese character is a combo of "two" & "human being"
To set your heart on benevolence you will be freed from evil.
What does Li or ritual mean/emphasize?
"Morality" There's a proper way to compart oneself in all situations. (Proper conduct)
What does filial piety Mean/emphasize?
Respect for one's parents and ancestors. Is the root of all virtue - the scrolls more teaching.
What are the five great relationships? What observations were made about these?
1) Father - son
2) Husband - wife
3) Elder brother - younger brother
4) Elder - younger
5) Ruler - subject
What is Tian? How does Confucianism interpret this idea?
Sky/heaven, " watches over him" conscious will the regulates the cosmos and intervenes in human affairs.
According to Taoism what is the Tao or Dao?
The way or path, The force behind the natural order of things, balance.
Tao- develop from daoism, combines elements of folk religion w/taoists principles "Can be spoken, not eternal"
Dao- toward end of Han dynasty, Also during the late warring states period
If he's a historical person what are some general things about the life of Lso Tzu, the founder of Taoism?
Was a state archivist/librarian in the Royal city of Loyang, traveled west towards Tibbett. A gatekeeper recognize his wisdom and asked him to write a summary of his views.
Who is the second major figure in Taoism? What characterizes his approach to life?
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) consider to be a playful, independent person with provocative ideas and promoted Taoists and his book Zhuangzi
What is Wu Wei or effortless? How does Taoism view this idea?
Don't be forceful, allowing nature take it's course.
What are the basic ideas of non-being?
To be modest, gentle, humble.
Taoists emphasize the relativity values. What Does that mean?
Illusion with Ying and Yang and principal, avoid sharp dichotomies, Something may be good from one angle And bad from another.
How do Taoists interpret the ying and the yang?
Yang: this'll facing side of a mountain, representing the injury that is bright/warm/masculine
Ying: The north facing side of a mountain, representing energy that is dark, cold, wet, feminine.
What type of philosophy of government would Taoism emphasize?
Is taken well care of, keep people happy= noninvasive government, more laws=chaos
What are some characteristics of religious Taoism which are not really emphasize in philosophical to Taoism?
emphasizes more of rituals also based on the teachings of Lao Tzu
What is the term Shinto mean?
"By the way of the gods" or "the way of Kami" from Buddhism and Confucianism and Taoism
The story of the Shinto creation myth, how does it relate to Japanese Emperor's?
one of the first emperors was ruler of japan, grandson of the god. To prevent any battles.
What/who are the kami for Shintoism? How do they interpret this notion?
" sacred spirits" that inhabit many things in nature dashboard or concept of the sacred than the idea of "diety"
Are the object of worship I'm Shinto
How does Shintoism view the idea of purification? What is a Torii How does it relate to purification?
Seeing as essential for living the kami way, cleansing myself from disease/death/blood "holy" "pure"
What are the major sections or areas of the Shinto shrine?
"Jinja" hte dwelling place of the kami. can be a tree, a rock, or waterfall which local people believe to be a source of power. Also the "torii" bird dwelling/sacred birds.
What is the ghost festival in Shinto all about?
Not determined by the solar calendar but the lunar calendar. Welcome the ancestral spirits to return home with food and offerings.
How does Shintoism view the nature of human beings?
harmonizes people w/the natural world or realm
What is the Shema for Judaism?
Only one unit God, he's a visa confession of Judaism
Judaism use God as both transcendent and immanent. Why do these terms mean as applied to God?
So John cares/loves humanity, God is near/present, illust. by the prophet Hosea
How was the Jewish view of creation different from ancient near Eastern myths of creation?
that god gives meaning and purpose to the world/humanity, the Jewish view said that creation was planned-Good-that dignity and value were given to the humans "image of god"
What is the general in traditional Jewish belief in the Messiah?
"anointed one" instrument of divine power through whom god would accomplish both the final judgment and the ultimate renewal of life on earth
How does the Traditional Judaism view the nature of the law or the Torah?
Instructions - various meanings Jewish Bible, general Bible, Specific laws. It expresses God's revealed standards for appropriate conduct, intent - motivation.
What is the Passover? What key bank in Jewish history does it commemorate?
Also known as "Pesach" 2nd of 3rd festivals, the viallagers offered prayers and animal sacrifices to god. In this festival they recount the Exodus story.
Its the commemoration of their liberation by god from slavery in ancient Egypt and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses.
The destruction of the first temple Jerusalem built by Solomon, When did this happen and by whom?
was destroyed by the babylonians 587 B.C.E during the siege of Jerusalem.
What is he Maccabean revolt? How feast commemorates this event?
leaders of the revolt found themselves fighting against syrian greek armies and countrymen who sided with the king (Antiochus). They wanted to keep traditional values.
Commemorated through- celebrated or 8 days, in March or April, Involves a "Seder"meal, unleavened bread: a reminder that they left Egypt in a rush. a type of bitter herb (green vegetable): reminder of their time of slavery in Egypt
When was the second temple of Jerusalem destroyed and by whom? How did this affect the Jewish religion?
the destruction was done by the Romans in 70 C.E which brought about the end of the temple based ceremonial religion of Israel.
Affected the religion by changing the focus to the written word
What resulted from the Bar Kokhba rebellion?
Rabbinic Judaism emphasizes two sources of authoritative teaching. What are they?
Masoretic text and the Aramaic text
What are the forms of modern Judaism?
orthodox, conservative, reform, reconstructionism
stresses strict beliefs and careful keeping of dietary laws, the most traditional.
attempts to blend the best of old and new Judaism
Reform and reconstructionism Judaism?
-liberal or progressive emph. evolving nature and faith
-evolving civilization that is based on conceptions of Jewish people
Festival: Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, and Shavuot?
Rosh-"begining of the year" celebration of Jewish new year occurring in the 7th lunar month
Yom Kippur- day of "atonement" the most sacred day of Jewish year
Sukkot-"booths" a festival that recall the Jews period of wandering in the desert after their exodus from Egypt
Shavuot- spring harvest festival that is seperated for 2 days and assoc. w/giving of the torah at Mt. Sinai
What was the general time frame as to when the NT Gospels are believed to have been written?
(its the primary)was written in the late 50s C.E.Mark, Luke, Matthew, John
was about jesus teachings about suffering, death, and resurrection
When did Jesus teach about the kingdom of God?
kingdom of heaven was no tan ordinary realm but a state of affairs that exist when human beings recognize gods sovereignty over the world and respond in love/obedience of gods will.
What does traditional Christianity believe about salvation? How does Jesus provide salvation according to Christians?
through reliance on divine grace that salvation from sin becomes possible, by using the language of sacrifice also by sacrificing animals w/peoples sins placed on them.
According to the Christian story what event vindicated the claims that Jesus is the Messiah?
he was proclaimed the deliverer not by oppression but by power of sin.
According to the traditional Christianity what is the nature of human beings? Why do we need to be saved?
God is holy, and people are sinners. We were born sinners. sin was our fundamental problem.
What is the Christian belief in the Trinity?
There is One God who eternally exists in three persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
What type of things lead to the reformation which is generally believed to have begun with Martin Luther? What is the general time frame for the reformation?
roughly 16th century, there was corruption amonst the clergy, taxes were imposed by the church- this angered many.
What is the ultimate authority for those protestants who aligned themselves with the reformation movement?
others railed behind Luther in the 95 thesis-it was to raise money for a cathedral by selling indulgences-tetzel geve the impression that one could by their way into heaven. Luther found that the church doesn't accept popes authority
Who is the Constantine and what significant role did he play in the history of Christianity?
was the first roman emperor, converted to Christianity, made the Constantinople a center for learning
What is one major difference between eastern orthodox and Roman Catholicism?
eastern: allows divorce, emperor has control
roman: divorce isn't allowed, pope has authority over everything
What is the Catholic reformation and what did it aim to do, what did emphasize?
deals with the council of trent, it reaffirmed 7 sacrements, insisted that the faiths be expressed by good works and cited the new testament.
What are the general characteristics of the following Protestant groups, fundamentalism, evangelicals, and Pentecostals?
1) was dedicated to finding doctrines it identified as fundamental to Christianity against perceived threats posed by modern culture
2) stressed the importance of conversion experience, bible as reliable source "born again"
3) spiritual renewal and experience of god through baptism in the holy spirit
What does baptism symbolize for most Christian traditions?
essentially take away sin, and allow one to ascend into heaven in the afterlife.
What is the Eucharist or communion represent for most Christian traditions?
work of christ, both the body and blood
What does Islam believe about Muhamed?
that he recieved the message of Qu'ran from god, as the final prophet
What does the term Islam mean?
submission to gods will
What are the five pillars of Islam, what do they each represent?
1. shahadah- the declaration of the faith
2. salat- the daily prayer
3. zakat- almsgiving
4. sawm- fasting during the month ramadan
5. hajj- pilgimage to mecca
What is the Sunnah?
It is the way of life of the prophet Muhammad Muslims can learn about the Sunnah from the hadith literature
What is the Hadith? What role does it have in Islam?
is the written tradition of what Mohammad wrote and said
What led to the differences between the Shi'a and the Sunni?
disagreement over who should lead the Muslim community following the death of Muhammad.
What is the night journey in Islam?
When Muhammad was miraculously transported to Jerusalem, ascended to heaven and came into the presence of Allah.
What do Muslims believe about the nature of the Qu'ran?
similar to "chapters" = surahs
literal word of god also means "recitation"
it has reference to the nature of god, the reality of the day of judgement, in addition to guidelines for moral behavior
What do Muslims believe with respect to salvation and judgment?
salvation= living with kindness is the way to heaven
judgement= was a warning to humanity to live a righteous life or suffer the consequences
What are the two aspects of Jihad, which of these is the greater jihad?
"to strive or struggle" there is lesser/greater
the greater jihad is ones struggle to become a better person by striving against ones own sinful tendencies and to live in accordance with the will of god.
Major beliefs of Mormonism?
believe that god is eternal and progression; polytheism
Major believes of Jehovah's Witnesses?
officially called the Zions watch tower bible and tract society. that god would come back to earth to prepare people for the kingdom of god. They want to save people from damnation.
Major beliefs of Christian science?
Mental healing: the belief of christian science, prayer is used for healing(not medicine)
believe that people are spirits bound by illusion and made up of matter
"salvation is to free your mind"
What are some of the major beliefs of the Adventist groups?
that Christ would return to earth to est. new heavens and new earth. Failed prediction led to 7th day Adventists- obeying 10 commandments
General beliefs of Wicca
north western paganism is similar to witch craft, they emph. getting back to nature (original form, relation w/humans& nature) Hist. has a masculine emph. understanding of god, and have one basic ethical principle "rede"
General believes of the Baha'i faith
Came from one sect of islam-Shiat's- the ones who emph. the blood line of mohammud. They emphasize the "amud" that god is bringing unity to the world, also unity of all faiths. (one world government)
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