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Geology Test 2
Terms in this set (109)
Less than 2% of all water on Earth is groundwater.
The ultimate source of groundwater is the oceans.
Groundwater will move through any rock/sediment or soil that is porous.
A poorly sorted porous rock/sediment is as permeable as a well-sorted porous rock/sediment.
The zone of saturation extends to an indefinite depth.
Groundwater is slightly acidic.
Caves do not form in marble because it is a dense and hard rock.
Most groundwater in the United States is used for ______.
The most immediate source of groundwater is ____.
the measure of how much water a material can hold.
measures how easily the material transports fluids
What is most porous?
What is most permeable?
What is an example of a rock/sediment type that could be an effective aquiclude?
The most effective aquifer is likely to _______.
have a well-sorted and well-rounded sediments with high permeability.
In regions of moderate to high rainfall, the top of the stream is the same as the ______.
top of the water table
The zone of aeration contains
air and water in pore spaces.
What is the average rate of groundwater flow?
a few centimeters per day
Groundwater moves ________.
from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
Where does groundwater discharge naturally
wherever the groundwater table intersects the ground surface.
A local aquiclude within a larger aquifer results in a(n)
perched water table.
Which statement about cones of depression is true
a. they form when water inflow exceeds water withdrawal
b. they affect large regions and have extensive economic impact.
c. They lower the water table around a well.
d. They only form immediately after a well is drilled.
They get narrower closer to the well head.
They lower the water table around a well.
What conditions are needed for the development of karst topography
What happens when water is withdrawn from an aquifer faster than it can be recharged
the water table becomes lower
When water is removed faster than it can be recharged, sediments may become compacted in a process called ____.
why is contaminated water so difficult to clean
groundwater moves so slowly
What is the heat source for hydrothermal activity on land
deep heat in earth's interior only
geothermal energy is produced by
heat from earth's interior.
Groundwater erupting from geysers that contain dissolved calcium carbonate will form deposits of what
what is a natural fountain that intermittently ejects hot water and steam into the air.
hydraulic fracturing involves extracting oil and gas from their thin layers of which type of rock.
how are oil and gas extracted in the hydraulic fracturing process.
injection of high-pressure fracking fluids increases the permeability of the rock and allows oil and gas to move into the well
fossils cannot usually be dated directly because they are not composed of minerals that naturally contain radioactive isotopes
the principle of lateral community says that is a fault occurs in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, the fault is older than the rocks.
to correlate rock units over a large area or to correlate age equivalent units of different compositions, fossils and the principle of fossil succession must be used
radiocarbon dating is only useful for organic material
the geologic time scale is a static concept that has allowed geologists to accurately date past events
lithostratigraphic units are defined by the physical attributes of the rocks
stratigraphy is the study of the composition, origin, areal distribution, and age relationships of layered rocks
geologists are correlating past geologic events to see if there are correlations with climate changes
the most visible signs of human activities such as cities, factories, and power plants will not be strongly recorded in the rock record.
the placement of events in a sequential order based upon their position in the rock record is referred to as _____ dating.
what is the approximate age of earth
4.6 billion years
whose work was the basis or the principle of uniformitarianism and the unavoidable necessity of a great age for earth.
uniformitarianism is the assumption that ____.
present day geologic processes also occurred in the past
what is the general term for a gap in the geologic record that represents a period of non deposition, erosion, or both
what principle states that in an undisturbed succession of sedimentary rocks, the oldest layer is at the bottom and the youngest is at the top?
the principle of superposition
a hiatus between igneous or metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks is represented in the rock record by a(n) ____.
which principle states that fossil assemblages succeed one another through time in a regular and predictable order
the principle of fossil succession
index or guide fossils are most useful because they ___.
lived during a brief period over geologic time.
rock units can be correlated best by examining
fossil data, rock types, and key beds
a half life is the amount of time required
for the mass of a sample to be decreased by half
radiometric dating is possible because
decay constants do not change
radiocarbon dating is possible primarily because
organisms stop accumulating carbon 14 when they die
the geologic time scale was initially put together by
superposition, fossil succession and correlation
the study of composition, origin, areal distribution, and age relationships of layered rocks
the longest divisions of geologic time are called
the most useful method for dating and the oldest events on Earth is
radiometric dating of rocks and fossils
divisions in geologic time represent
distinct changes in the rock record
Ocean currents move in the direction of local winds
the saltiness of seawater has been a state of dynamic equilibrium for at least 1.5 billion years
by definition beaches are composed of sand
nearly all beach sand is quartz
salinity of seawater is a measure of ____
the total quantity of dissolved solids.
the oceans are most likely to get saltier if
runoff from lakes and streams is increased
which term describes vertical ocean circulation, in which water moves from deep to shallow
surface oceans are ____ driven
deep ocean currents are ____ driven
the densest ocean water is ____
cold and very saline
which statement about the photic zone is true?
a. light intensity increases with depth
b. organisms depend directly on organic substances "raining" down from the aphotic zone
c. the photic zone has sufficient sunlight for organisms to photosynthesize
d. the water is typically green because of the abundance of organic matter
the photic zone has sufficient sunlight for organisms to photosynthesize.
what are narrow surface currents that flow in the same general direction as the approaching waves
the movement of water within a wave travels
in a circular path at a depth of one-half the wavelength
spring tides are tides ____
that result from the combined gravitational force of the aligned moon and sun
a deposit of unconsolidated sediment that extends landward from low tide to a change in topography or to where vegetation begins is a(n) ____.
beaches change seasonally in response to changes in _______.
wide beaches, deltas, and barrier islands are characteristic of ____ coasts.
emergent coasts form when
land rises or sea falls
the area within 200 nautical miles of its shoreline to which the US claims all mineral resources is called the ____.
exclusive economic zone
what amount of oil from US production comes from the Gulf of Mexico
total quantity of dissolved salt, expressed as a percentage
salinity of seawater
distance between successive crests or troughs of a wave
when deep ocean water rises to the surface, the upward flow is called a/an ____.
the relatively smaller tides that occur when the moon is out of alignment with the sun and earth are called ________ ________
once a wave breaks, its water flows toward the beach as a chaotic, turbulent mass called
a continuous flow of water in a particular direction
circular paths of ocean currents
the deflection of currents caused by the earth's rotation is called the _____ _________
any strip of shoreline washed by waves and tides
when the flow of the tide is funneled through a narrow entrance to the bay, a _____ ______ results.
a wave resistant ridge or mound built by corals, algae, and other organisms
is a coastline is flooded or sea level rises, a _____ coastline is formed
a long ridge of sand or gravel extending out from a beach is called a
a sheltered body of water between the shore and a barrier island is a
if waves cut a cave into a narrow headland, the cave may eventually erode all the way through the headland forming a ____ _____
the world's largest and deepest ocean is
the pacific ocean
average salinity of water
the layer of pronounced temperature change with water depth is called
a spring tide is a ____ tide formed when the sun and moon are ______
the highest part of the wave
continuous flows of water in a particular direction
ocean water density depends on
temperature and salinity
surface currents are mostly _____ driven
circular paths of ocean currents are called ____.
surface water becomes denser when it becomes _______ and _________.
cool and salty
if waves strike shore at an angle, they ___ and create a ____ current that flows parallel to the beach
longshore currents transport sediment ____
parallel to the coast
an emergent coastline forms where sea level ____ or coastal land ____.
falls and rises
a sand bar forming an island parallel to the shore is called a
during the past 40,000 years, sea level has fluctuated by ____ meters.
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