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APES Chapter 11 - Sustaining Biodiversity Review
Terms in this set (69)
Explain what happened to the passenger pigeon...
The passenger pigeon once flew in great numbers throughout the United States, but became a massive target for hunters due to its many uses (food, feathers for pillows, etc...) and was completely wiped out by 1900.
Currently, what mass extinction is Earth going through and what it its cause?
The 6th Great Extinction; humans stress on the environment (over use of resources, pollution, population growth, etc...)
Define Local Extinction.
when a species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited, but is still found elsewhere in the world; typically a loss of a population
Define Ecological Extinction.
when so few members of a species are left that it can no longer play its ecological role in the biological communities where it is found
Define Biological Extinction.
when a species is no longer found anywhere on Earth
What is the definition of an endangered species?
A species that has so few individual survivors that the species could soon be extinct.
What is the definition of a threatened species?
A species that is still abundant in its natural range, but due to declining numbers, is likely to become endangered in the near future.
Some species have _______________ characteristics that make them prone to extinction.
What three problems do biologists face when trying to catalog an extinction?
1) The time it takes for an extinction to occur typically takes a long period of time, making it difficult to document.
2) Scientists have not identified all of the worlds current species yet. (only about 1.4 million out of a possible 100 million)
3) Most of the species that scientists have identified, we know little about.
What percent of fish are threatened with premature extinction? Out of that, what percent is freshwater fish?
What is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)?
coalition of the worlds leading conservation groups; publishes annual Red Lists, which are the world standard for listing the world's threatened species
What are the causes that are threatening nearly half of primates with extinction?
habitat loss, illegal trade of wildlife, and the over hunting of their meat (bush meat)
What 3 ways do scientists predict future extinctions?
1) Study records that document the rate at which a species has become extinct and compare this with the fossil records of extinctions prior to our arrival
2) Observe how the number of species present increases or decreases in an area depending on the areas size.
3) Use graphs that include changes in habitat, genetic factors, and interactions with other species to estimate the risk a species has at becoming endangered or extinct
What does the Species-Area Relationship suggest?
An average 90% loss of habitat causes the extinction of about 50% of the species living in that habitat.
What is the theory of island bio-geography used for?
to estimate the number of current and future extinctions in patches of shrinking habitat that is being surrounded by degraded habitats or human developments
Before humans came along, what was the natural extinction rate?
One species out of millions every year (0.0001% rate)
What is the current extinction rate?
0.01% to 1%
How many species do we lose a year based off of the current extinction rate percentage?
5,000 to 14,000
What three reasons do scientists have for calling the extinction rate (1%) a conservative estimate?
1) The rate of species loss is likely to increase during the next 50-100 years due to the growth of the human population and the resources used per person.
2) The projected extinction rates are much higher in parts of the world where the worlds biodiversity is largely threatened. These places are called hot spots and scientists are urging us to focus our attention to these places in order to slow the high rates of extinction.
3) We are destroying multiple habitats that would serve as an area of emergence for new or reintroduced species, so we are limiting the long term recovery rate of biodiversity this way.
What is the speciation crisis?
The formation of new species is being hindered due to humans destroying the habitat these new species would live in.
Why should humans care that we are speeding up the extinction rate?
It will take at least 5 million years for natural speciation to rebuild the biodiversity we are destroying.
Define instrumental value.
a species usefulness to us in the form of economic and ecological services (genetic information, food crops, lumber, paper, and medicine)
What analogy is used to describe the careless elimination of species?
burning books before we read them
In what ways do wild species provide us ways to learn how nature works?
recreational pleasure, ecotourism
What is the upside to ecotourism?
It injects money into local economies and allows for visitors to learn how the natural world works and to appreciate its value.
What is the downside to ecotourism?
Large numbers of people disrupting the ecosystems, lots of ecotourism does not meet the standards of responsible ecotourism, building of tourist facilities degrades fragile areas and promotes premature extinction
What is intrinsic (existence) value?
the value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth's biodiversity based on its existence, regardless of its usefulness to humans
What is biophilia?
A persons obligation deep inside them to have a natural affinity for nature
What does the acronym HIPPO stand for? (the summation of the causes of premature extinction)
H- habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation
I- invasive species
P- population growth
What is the greatest threat to wild species?
habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation
What is the largest eliminator of species?
Deforestation of tropical rainforest
What is the second largest eliminator of species?
The destruction and degradation of coral reefs and wetlands, plowing of grasslands, and pollution of waterways
What is a habitat island?
any habitat surrounded by a different one (national parks, freshwater lakes, etc...)
What is habitat fragmentation?
occurs when a large, continuous area of habitat is reduced in area and divided into smaller and more scattered "habitat islands" (island bio-geography) by roads, logging, agriculture, urban development, etc...
What does habitat fragmentation do to the environment?
blocks migration routes, divides populations into smaller groups (which become more vulnerable to predators, disease, competitive species, and catastrophic events), creates barriers that limit species to colonize new areas, eat, or find mates
Where are the majority of the worlds bird species located?
What percent of the worlds bird species is declining?
What areas of the world, that are major bird ecosystems, are being destroyed at alarming rates?
Brazil and Indonesia
What bird made a comeback in eastern Arkansas?
Ivory billed Woodpecker
What is the greatest danger to bird species?
What is the second greatest danger to bird species?
introduction of nonnative species and the illegal pet trade
What percentage of the worlds waterbirds populations are declining due to loss of wetlands?
List a few threats to birds that are conducted by man.
colliding with power lines, communication towers, and skyscrapers; flying into glass windows, oil spills, pesticides, herbicides, swallowing toxic lead in shot pellets, climate change
How are birds excellent environmental indicators?
live in every biome and climate so they respond quickly to environmental changes in their habitats
Define Biotic Pollution.
harmful ecological and economic effects from the presence of a non native species in an environment
What is the "globalization of nature" effect?
the spread of bugs, seeds, or other parts of 'nature" being spread by cars, shipping cargo, aircrafts, etc.. to areas they are not native to
List three non native species that have been spread due to the globalization of nature effect.
The Argentina Fire Ant, The Burmese Python, multiple fish in the Great Lakes and Baltic Sea
What is an analogy that pertains to the attempt at removing a nonnative species from an ecosystem?
Trying to get smoke back into a chimney
What are the things scientist suggest to do to limit the harmful impact of nonnative species?
1) Fund a research program to identify areas vulnerable to nonnative species
2) Step up the inspection of imported goods
3) Increase observations to monitor species invasions and how they spread so we can predict future invasions
4) Require cargo ships to rid itself of all possible water that could be carrying possible invasive species
5) Research more to find natural predators that could control the populations of nonnative species
6) Pass international law that bans the transfer of one species from a country to another
What two factors have greatly expanded humans ecological footprint?
human population growth and the excessive and wasteful consumption of resources
What is DDT and what was its effect on bird species?
DDT is a pesticide that made the birds eggshells so brittle that they would break, making it impossible for birds to reproduce successfully.
What animal is immensely threatened by poaching?
What problems are occurring due to the hunting of bush meat?
1) Has caused local extinction of many animals
2) Has helped the spread of fatal diseases such as HIV-AIDS and the ebola virus.
Explain the 1975 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.
This treaty lists 900 species that cannot be traded commercially as live specimens or wildlife products due to the fact they are in danger of extinction, and some 5,000 animal species and 20,000 plant species because they are threatened.
Explain the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Ratified by 188 countries, legally commits participating governments to reversing the global decline of biodiversity and sharing the benefits from using the worlds genetic resources.
Monumental because of its focus on ecosystems rather than a single species.
Explain the Endangered Species Act.
Designed to identify and legally protect endangered species in the United States and abroad.
What are Habitat Conservation Plans?
designed to strike a compromise between the interests of private landowners and those of endangered and threatened species
What is a safe harbor agreement?
landowners voluntarily agree to take specified steps to restore, improve, or maintain habitat for threatened or endangered species located on their land; in return, landowners get technical help and assurances that the natural resources involved will not face future restrictions once the agreement expires
What is Voluntary Candidate Conservation Agreements?
landowners agree to take specific steps to help conserve a species whose population is declining but is not yet listed as endangered or threatened; participating owners receive technical help and assurances that no additional resource use restrictions will be imposed on the land
What three major changes did the U.S. National Academy of Sciences recommend to make to the ESA?
1) Increase the meager funding
2) Develop recovery plans more quickly
3) When a species is first listed, have it listed as critical to establish a temporary emergency measure
What 3 principles would the new idea, the ecosystems approach, follow?
1) Find out what species and ecosystems the country has
2) Locate and protect the most endangered species and ecosystems
3) Make development biodiversity friendly by providing incentives for private landowners to help protect specific endangered ecosystems
What was the first wildlife refuge established and by who?
Pelican Island; President Theodore Roosevelt
What is the National Refuge System Improvement Act?
Calls for insuring the biological diversity and integrity and environmental health of the system are maintained
Define a Gene (seed) Bank.
Preserve genetic information and endangered plant species by storing their seeds in refrigerated, low humidity environments
What is egg pulling?
involves collecting wild eggs laid by critically endangered species of birds and hatching them in zoos or research centers
What is captive breeding?
Some or all of the individuals of an endangered species are captured for breeding in captivity, with the aim of reintroducing the offspring in to the wild
What is cross fostering?
The young of a rare species is raised by the parents of a similar species
What is reconciliation ecology?
Focuses on establishing and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work, or play; In other words, we need to learn to share the space we dominate with other species
What is the precautionary principle?
when evidence show that an activity threatens human health or environment, we should take precautionary measures to prevent or reduce the effect
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