Sociology Final Exam

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Terms in this set (...)

Race
~People who share traits that are biologically transmitted (hair texture, eye color, shape of nose, size of lips, petite build)
~We deem people superior or inferior based on these physical traits
~Sociologists view racial categories as misleading and harmful
~It is learned
Ethnicity
~Shared cultural heritage which typically involves common ancestors, language, and religion
Difference between race and ethnicity
Race is physical, but ethnicity is origin and culture
Immigration
~The movement of people into one country from another for the purpose of settlement
~"going to"
Emigration
~The act of leaving a country to live in another
~"Leaving from"
Reasons for global migration
~Push factors: dynamics within a country that force people to emigrate (war, famine, political oppression, population pressures)
~Pull factos: features of destination that draw people ( prosperous labor markets, better living conditions, and lower population density)
~Macro-level factors: overarching issues such as the political situation in an area, laws/regulations controlling immigration and emigration
~Micro-level factors: concerned with the resources, knowledge, and understandings that the migrant population possesses
Emergent migration patterns
~Acceleration—greater numbers
~Diversification—greater variety of types of
immigrants
~Globalization—more countries are sending
and receiving migrants
~Feminization—greater number of female
immigrants
Diaspora
~Separation of ethnic population from their homeland to a foreign area, often forced or under traumatic circumstances
~Non-static, ongoing processes of maintaining collective identity and preserving ethnic culture
Minority
~People who are culturally and physically distinctive and ultimately leads to negative consequences, barriers, and bias
~Subjected to disadvantages because they possess less wealth, power, and prestige than the dominant group
~Minority group refers to political power and not numerical distinction
~EXAMPLE: Spanish speakers in the U.S.
Genocide
~The systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group
~The systematic killing of one category of people by another
Ethnic cleansing
Creation of ethnically homogenous territories through the mass expulsion of ethnic populations
Minorities as majority
Where should we be by 2043? There are four possibilities:
~Assimilation (acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, where the new group takes on the values/norms of the dominant culture)
~The Melting Pot (merging different cultures and outlooks)
~Pluralism (all ethnic groups retain their independent and separate identities yet share equally in the rights and powers of citizenship)
~Multiculturalism (ethnic groups exists separately and equally)
Segregation
~The physical and social separation of categories of people
~de facto (what we see in practice) vs. de jure (what we see in law)
~de facto example: blacks separating themselves
~de jure example: blacks and whites were allowed to be segregated as long as they were provided equal rights and conditions
Pluralism
~A model of ethnic relations in which ethnic cultures retain their independent and separate identities yet participate in the rights ad powers of citizenship
~Where we are right now as a country in terms of recognizing people as different
~State when people of all racial and ethnic categories have roughly equal social standing
Assimilation
~The acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture
~Often forced upon people
~The process by which minorities gradually adopt cultural patterns of the dominant majority
Native Americans
~Descendants of 1st immigrants
~1st people to cross
~"Forced assimilation" in the late 1800s
~Did not gain full citizenship until 1924
~Improvement: Native American organizations have reported gains in new membership applications, children are learning native languages, and production of new casinos, though most profits go elsewhere
~Refers to hundreds of societies who first settled the Western Hemisphere.
~15th century numbered in the millions and by 1990, they numbered 250,000
~Were decimated by disease, war, and genocide and subjected to European rule. This shaped them into impoverished ethnic minorities.
Jim Crow Laws
~Mandated racial segregation laws (De jure) that dominated the South beginning in 1890. Blacks had "Separate but equal" treatment under law. This "separate but equal" included all public facilities. This lead to unfair treatment.
Brown vs. Board of Education
~Made segregation in schools illegal
~The NAACP instituted a campaign against segregated public education. The struggle came to a head when the organization sued five school boards, challenging the concept of separate but equal schooling, In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
Civil Rights Act
~Passed in 1964
~Banned discrimination in public facilities, education, employment, and other agencies
Executive Order 9066
~Issued by Roosevelt during WWII
~Ordered the removal of resident enemy aliens (Japanese Americans) from parts of the West vaguely identified as military areas, and relocated them to remote internment camps.
Prejudice
~You hold preconceived ideas about a group of people and these ideas are usually resistant to changing
~Deep-rooted
~Often formed from a root of ignorance
~You have biases about people
~Two factors in the cause: personality factors and societal factors
~Attitude, beliefs about it
Discrimination
~Behavior or practices that deny to members of a particular group resources or rewards that others can obtain
~This is the action you do about it
~Involves excluding/restricting members of another group from opportunities that are available to other groups
~Can be positive or negative
Institutional discrimination
Built into the operation of social institutions, including the economy, schools, and the legal system
Double Consciousness
~Describes the feeling that you have more than one social identity, which makes it difficult to develop a sense of self
~Having two different identities
~Term coined by WEB DuBois
Stereotype
~Thinking of terms of fixed and inflexible categories
~An exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
~Applying that notion to every person in that group you meet
Displacement
Anger/hostility is directed towards objects that are not the cause of their problems
Antiracism
~Anything that can confront, eradicate, and/or ameliorate racism
~EXAMPLE: Malays were guaranteed 40% of all jobs and 30% ownership of enterprises as well as the lowering of qualification requirements for school
~EXAMPLE: Indians were guaranteed to receive a percentage of the legislative stars in the Lower Parliament
~EXAMPLE: #takeaknee, Black Lives Matter, #NoDAPL, Flint Water Crisis
Scapegoat
~People blame these individuals for problems they did not cause
~Common when two ethnic groups compete for economic rewards
~Groups that are relatively powerless because they make easy targets
Institutional racism
~You see racism being exercised by institutions ~Developed by Stokeley Carmichael and Charles Hamilton
~EXAMPLES: Police, the health care industry, and the educational system
Racism
~Coming to conclusions about people being superior or inferior based on their race
~You have prejudice attitudes towards people (most serious example of prejudice)
~The assertions that people of one race are less worthy than or even biologically inferior to others
Cultural Theory
~Some prejudice is found in everyone because prejudice is a part of the culture in which we all live and learn
~The Bogardus social distance studies prove this point by finding students across the country often had the same attitudes towards specific racial and ethnic categories.
Affirmative Action Policies (different political stances)
~Seeks to break the circle of prejudice and discrimination
~Didn't do what we intended it to do
~U.S. Courts continue to refine and define these policies
Liberal vs. conservative views on affirmative action
~Liberal
▪ Believes in affirmative action.
▪ Due to past racism minorities were deprived of opportunities and it is the government's job to make up for that.

~Conservative
▪ Does not believe in affirmative action
▪ It is unfair to use race as a selection factor. Reverse discrimination is not a solution for racism.
Racialization
~We come to understand race as meaning that classifies individuals
~The process by which understanding of race are used to classify individuals or group of people
~Can be institutionalized into exploitive political or economic systems
~Can create bias
~Positive: All Asians are smart and good at math (Can create a feeling of nervousness to achieve this)
~Negative: All gypsies are thieves
Racial Literacy
~Skills taught to children of multiracial families to help them cope with racial hierarchies and to integrate multiple ethnic identities
~Maureen example of multiracial kids
~We learn racial literacy but for multiracial kids, it is a bit harder. They are trying to figure out two identities.
~Question about adopting: Should race be a factor in deciding what baby to adopt? It has been said in the past that it shouldn't, but questions arise about how can a white family relate to an African-American baby such as hair, heritage, etc.
~If parents adopt a baby of a different race, they need to educate that child about their ethnic background
Why has racism persisted?
~Exploitive relations with conquered peoples
~European beliefs that white symbolized purity
and black symbolized evil
~Belief that race was inherited and associated
with superiority or inferiority