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E.
The advantages of group decision making are numerous. The adage "two heads are better than one" illustrates that when individuals with different knowledge, skills, and resources collaborate to solve a problem or make a decision, the likelihood of a quality outcome is increased. More ideas can be generated by groups and they have a synergistic effect. In addition, when followers are directly involved in the process, they are more apt to accept the decision, because they have an increased sense of ownership and commitment to the decision. Implementing solutions becomes easier when individuals have been actively involved in the decision-making process. Although group decision making and problem solving have distinct advantages, involving groups also carries certain disadvantages and may not be appropriate in all situations. The time required for making group decisions and for achieving consensus may not be appropriate, especially in a crisis situation, which requires making prompt decisions. In addition, some decisions may have been made at the organizational level and discussing the decision as though other options were possible is counterproductive. Groups may be more concerned with maintaining group harmony than engaging in active discussion on the issue and generating creative ideas to address it. Group members who manifest a "groupthink" mentality may be so concerned with avoiding conflict and supporting their leader and other members that important issues or concerns are not raised.