Psychology Final - Chapter 6

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Learning
Relatively enduring change in behavior resulting from experience
Types of Learning: Non-associative
Response to something in the environment
Form of Non-associative Learning: Habituation
Decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus
Form of Non-associative Learning: Sensitization
Increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus
Associative Learning
Linking two events that in general take place one after the other
Classical Conditioning
Also known as Pavlovian Conditioning. When a neural stimulus elicits a response bc it has become associated with a stimulus that already produces that response
Ivan Pavlov
Won a nobel prize for his research on the digestive system
Behaviorism
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Salivary Reflex
Automatic, unlearned response that occurs when a food stimulus is presented to a hungry animal, including humans
Neutral Stimulus
Unrelated to a salivary reflex, such as a clicking, presented along with a stimulus that reliably produces reflex, such as food
Unconditioned Stimulus
The Food in the situation
Unconditioned Response
Pavlov called the salivation elicited by food. This is unconditioned b/c it is unlearned. Occurs without prior training and is an automatic behavior
Conditioned Stimulus
This is this b/c the clicking produces salivation AFTER training
Conditioned Response
Response to the Conditioned Stimulus, a response that has been learned
Acquisition
The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Extinction
A process in which the Conditioned Response is weakened when the Conditioned Stimulus is repeated without the Unconditioned Stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery
A process in which a previously extinguished Conditioned Response reemerges after the presentation of the Conditioned Stimulus
Stimulus Generalization
Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the Conditioned Stimulus produce the Conditioned Response
Stimulus Discrimination
A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the Unconditioned Stimulus
Second Order Conditioning
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Phobia
Acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object of a situation
Operant Conditioning
Also known as instrumental conditioning. A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
Law of Effect
Any behavior that leads to a "satisfying state of affairs" is likely to occur again. Any behavior that leads to an "annoying state of affairs" is less likely to occur again
BF skinner
Formalized the methods and theories of operant conditioning using his operant chamber (Skinner box)
Shaping
Training complex behaviors by reinforcing actions that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
Reinforcer
A stimulus that occurs after a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect
The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement
Positive
Added stimulus
Negative
Removed stimulus
Positive Reinforcement
Associated with the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, in the new "reward centers" (or pressure centers) of the brain
Secondary Reinforcement Example
Teacher providing students with tokens for good behavior
Reinforcement vs. Punishment
Research shows reinforcement is generally found to be more effective than punishment
Partial Reinforcement
A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently
Continuous Reinforcement
A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
Ratio Schedule
Based on the number of times a behavior occurs, as when a behavior is reinforced on every third or tenth occurence
Interval Schedule
Based on specific unit of time, as when a behavior is reinforcement when it is enforced every minute or hour
Fixed Interval
Occurs when reinforcement occurs after a certain amount of time
Variable Interval
Occurs when reinforcement is provided after the passage of time, but the time is not regular (checking for texts throughout the day)
Behavior Modification
Use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behavior and replace them with desirable ones
Counterconditioning
When a person is suffering from a phobia, a clinician might expose the patient to small doses of the feared stimulus while having the client engage in an enjoyable task to help someone overcome a phobia
Conditioned Taste Aversion
Many people can recall a time when they ate a particular food and later became ill with nausea, stomach upset, and vomiting. Whether or not the food caused the illness, most people respond to this sequence of events by demonstrating this
Rescorla-Wagner Model
A cognitive model of classical conditioning; it holds that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected.
Positive (Presence) Prediction Error
Suppose that after a stimulus appears, and something better than expected happens. This trengthens the association between the CS and the US.
Negative (Absence) Prediction Error
The absence of the event leads to this. Weakens the CS-US relationship
Blocking Effect
Once a conditioned stimulus is learned, it can prevent the acquisition of a new conditioned stimulus.
Thorndikes Puzzle Box
Small cage with a trapdoor. The trapdoor would open with food in it if the animal inside performed a specific action, such as pulling a string.
Fear Conditioning
Animals can be classically conditioned to fear neutral objects
Primary Reinforcers
Those necessary for survival, such as food or water. Satisfy biological needs
Secondary Reinforcers
Events or objects that serve as reinforcers but do not satisfy biological needs
Premack Principle
According to this principle, a more-valued activity can be used to reinforce the performance of a less-valued activity.
Positive Punishment
The administration (added) of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring.
Negative Punishment
The removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring.
Cognitive Map
A visual/spatial mental representation of an environment.
Latent Learning
Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement.
Observational Learning: Modeling
The imitation of observed behavior
Observational Learning: Vicarious Learning
Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action
Observational Learning: Mirror Neurons
Neurons in the brain that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs a similar action
Nucleus Accumbens
Part of the reward center. Damage would prevent reward (therefore decreasing a drug addiction)
Losses Disguised as Wins (LDW's)
Payouts smaller than the original bet are revealed just like wins (flashing lights, bells & music)
Near Misses
Are displayed with higher probability than chance alone would cause. Nucleus accumbens reacts to this just as much (or even more than) a win
A frazzled parent yells at his daughter for coloring on the walls with markers. This is an example of which type of operant conditioning?
Answer: Positive Punishment
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