Acquired abnormality

A physiological or anatomical defect that develops in fetal life as a result of environmental factors.


The absence or blockage of a natural orifice or tubular structure.


A compact substance -- undigested food, fecal material -- that occurs normally in the digestive tract.

Child life specialist

A trained professional who specializes in the psychosocial care of and communication with pediatric patients and their families.


A term that describes the communicating passageways between the nasal fossae and the pharynx.


Narrowing of the passageway of a blood vessel, such as coarctation of the aorta, a congenital condition.


A condition or an anomaly that develops during fetal life.

Ductus arteriosus

A normal fetal structure that allows blood to bypass circulation to the lungs. If this structure remains open after birth, it is called a patent ductus arteriosus.

Embryonic life

The first eight weeks of gestational development


The eversion, or turning out, of an organ.


Gestational life after 8 weeks.

Genetic abnormality

A birth anomaly that is inherited.


The balance of physiological processes that maintain life.


An infant size bed and transport unit that is environmentally controlled and equipped with monitoring devices.

Magical thinking

A psychological process in which a person attributes intention and will to inanimate objects. Magical thinking may also describe a patient's belief that an event will happen because he or she wills it or wishes it. This is a normal developmental stage of toddlers.

Mutagenic substance

A chemical or other agent that causes permanent change in the cell's genetic material.


Pediatric cancer of the kidney also known as Wilms tumor.

Neural tube defect

A congenital abnormality resulting from failure of the neural tube to close in embryonic development.


A protrusion of abdominal contents through a congenital defect at the umbilicus. Congenital anomaly in which the abdominal viscera develop outside the body contained within a peritoneal sac.

Pyloric stenosis

A narrowing of the part of the stomach pylorus that leads to the small intestine.


A chemical or agent that can injure the fetus or cause birth defects.

Rubella virus

causes measles


is the causitive agent of cerebral calcifications, microcephaly, and heart defects.

Treponema pallidum

causes syphilis


causes hydrocephalus and deafness.

Herpes virus

causes retinal defect, microcephaly, and micro-phthlamia.

Wilms tumor

is the most common renal malignancy of children.

Bronchial cleft cysts and clefts are

embryonic remnants or slits in the neck region that persist as cysts or fistulas after birth.

Pediatric patients do not act like adults for two reasons and they are:

Their physiological and psychological responses are different. They should not be treated adults.

Teratogenic agents that cross the placenta

Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes, Varicella-zoster, Syphilis

Cut down

is when the baby's wrist is very fat and sometimes an incision has to be made in order to insert an IV.

Five developmental stages are:

Infants - birth to 18 months; Toddlers - 19 months to 3 years; Preschoolers - 3 to six years; School age - six to ten years; Adolescence - eleven to eighteen years.

Rapid sequence induction

is to prevent aspiration. Apply cricoid pressure. Especially important if you do not know if the patient had something to eat.

Medications are prescribed by weight and are measured in



fluid in the middle ear


A telescoping of one portion of the intestine into another. Draws into itself. Sucks into itself. Reduced by hydrostatic pressure. Reduced by manual manipulation.


twisting of bowel.

Tetralogy of Fallot

A combination of congenital defects. The anomalies include pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, and transposition of the aorta.

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