Ancient China

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Where did China's first civilization develop?
on the North China Plain
What is Loess?
a fine dust like material that forms in the soil
Which Dynasty had the earliest written records?
Shang Dynasty
What is an example of the earliest written records in the Shang Dynasty?
Oracle bones
How were oracle bones used?
to predict the future
Which metal was most valued by the ancient Chinese?
bronze
What are the geographical features that isolated China?
To the north is the Gobi desert, to the West is the Taklimakan Desert, to the South the Himalaya Mountains, and the East is the Pacific Ocean
What are the two major rivers in China?
The He Huang River (Yellow River) and the Chang (Yangtze) River
What were two accomplishments of the Shang Dynasty?
expansion of territory, walled cities, protectives dikes, first writing system, bronze metalworking
How did leaders of the Shang dynasty increase their power?
Thanks to the Agriculture Revolution the Shang Dynasty was able to produce large harvest that supported large armies who in turn were able to attack neighboring lands.
How did the Huang He (Yellow) River affect the lives of the Chinese that settled among its banks?
The Huang River flowed through the Huang River valley which held loess from the Gobi desert. When it flooded the North China plain it created fertile farmland.
How did the Zhou dynasty gain the Mandate of Heaven?
The Zhou were victorious over the Shang because most Shang warriors refused to fight because of the corruptness of the Emperor.
Who was the son of Heaven?
The ruler of China
How did the Zhou king control his vast kingdom?
He placed family members in charge of regions.
What occurred during the end of the Zhou dynasty?
Weak states conquered stronger ones
What did Zhou artisans discover?
how to mold bronze into farm tools
Name 6 technological, economic, and cultural advances that occurred during the Zhou dynasty.
technological: cross bow, iron, stronger farming tools, compass
economic: crops yield increased, coins, built a network of roads
cultural: supported poets, artists, and the writing of wise men
What is legalism?
A belief system in Ancient China where a strong ruler and a strong legal system are needed to create social order.
Shi Huangdi, which means First Emperor, was leader of what dynasty?
The Qin Dynasty
Although a cruel leader, Shi Huangdi created two significant achievements during his reign what were they?
He built the Great Wall of China and unified China after the warring states period.
Why did Shi Huangdi build the Great Wall of China?
The purpose of the Wall was to defend the empire from nomads living in the North.
Which dynasty is the longest-lasting dynasties in Chinese History?
The Han Dynasty ruled China for 400 hundred years.
What was the Silk Road?
The Silk Road was a network of trade routes that crossed Asia connecting China to Central and Southwest Asia.
What was the civil service system of government in the Han dynasty?
The civil service is a system of government employees selected for their skills and knowledge.
The Han dynasty was suportive to what system of beliefs?
The Han dynasty supported Confucianism system of beliefs.
How was Buddhism allowed to enter China?
Through the exchange of ideals along the Silk Route.
What was the social order of Confucius?
Confucius valued mental work more than physical labor, therefore, scholars were highly respected, Artisans were valued for their skill and hard work. Farmers were also highly respected because they produced good for survival.Merchants were at the lowest level of the social because they did not produce anything. Slaves were also at the bottom of the social order.
What role did women have in the Han dynasty?
The status of women was generally lower than men, most worked in the home weaving and caring for their children and elderly family members.
Name two Chinese inventions that have influenced modern society?
Gun powder, calligraphy, acupuncture, seismometer, lacquer coating, paper
What is acupuncture?
A type of therapy that uses needles to cure sickness and stop pain.
What is Monotheism?
The belief in on God.
What is Polytheism?
The belief in Many gods.
What is Daoism (Taoism)?
It is a philosophy of following the Dao, that emphasizes a simple and natural existence. The natural way of the universe with two great and powerful forces the Ying and the Yang.
Who is the attributed to being the founder of Daoism?
According to legend a man named Laozi who is known as a sage(wise person).
What is the book called where Laozi wrote his beliefs?
Dao De Jing
What is filial piety?
respect and obedience to elders, devotion of children to their parents
What were the five relationships at the heart of Confucianism?
(1) ruler and subject
(2) father and son
(3) husband and wife
(4) older and younger brothers
(5) two friends
Why was silk important to the Chinese culture?
It was an important to their economy for trade since no one for hundreds of years knew how to make silk but the Chinese.
What is Legalism?
The belief where a strong ruler and strong legal system are needed to create social order.
How long did the Warring States period last?
China entered an era of chaos from 475 b.c. to 221 b.c.
What is the Dao?
The natural way of the universe
Which spirits were most important to the Chinese?
ancestor spirits
Who is known as the 'first teacher' ?
Confucius
What is discussed in the Analects ?
behavior and ideals
According to Daoism, what must be balanced?
good people and bad people
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