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Nealk VA Psych ch 1 2nd semester
Terms in this set (99)
The study of psychology based upon the scientific study of observable and measurable behavior only. It was developed by John B. Watson based on the work of Pavlov.
The belief that thoughts and ideas are distinct from the physical world.
A theory of mental life that focuses on how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to adapt and function in its environment.
An approach to psychology that breaks all consciousness into three basic elements: physical sensation, feelings, and images or memories. According to this view, psychology's role is to identify these elements and show how they can be combined and integrated. This school of thought was short-lived and has had little long-term effect.
A simple form of training in which one stimulus comes to signal the occurrence of a second.
The ability to look at all aspects of an issue objectively before forming an opinion or when challenging an assumption. When doing this, one must clearly define one's question, suggest a theory, collect and examine evidence to support said theory, and analyze one's assumptions.
The transfer of emotions for one person or object to another through conditioning.
A technique in which the patient lies on a couch, recounts dreams, and says whatever comes to mind. It was developed by Freud.
A testable prediction derived from a theory.
The study of behavior, including thoughts, feelings, actions, and the mental processes behind these.
Personality theories that contend that behavior results from often unconscious psychological factors that interact within an individual.
The process by which phenomena are investigated. Psychologists rely on this process to answer questions. It was not applied to psychology until the late nineteenth century.
The process by which we decide what to attend to at any given moment.
A systematic explanation of a phenomenon. It organizes known facts, allows the prediction of new facts, and allows us to exercise a degree of control over said phenomenon.
A classical Greek philosopher who believed that we are born with knowledge and gain access to this knowledge through correct reasoning.
A student of Socrates. He was also a dualist and believed that the world was divided into two realms: the pure and abstract realm of the mind and the more mundane physical world. He suggested that reason is responsible for balancing our desires.
A student of Plato who, unlike his predecessors, believed that we acquire knowledge through observation and reasoning and that knowledge is not innate.
Believed, like today's psychological behaviorists, that we are born blank slates that acquire knowledge through experience. He believed that the human mind is also governed by laws.
Believed that the mind is unobservable and thus unfit for scientific study. He also believed, like evolutionary psychologists, our behavior as a species has evolved over time to favorite behavior that contributes to our survival.
Founded the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879, commonly acknowledged as the "birth" of psychology. He coined the term voluntarism to describe his view of psychology.
One of the first academics to challenge structuralism. He developed a functionalist theory. He offered a class in psychology at Harvard in 1875.
G. Stanley Hall
Established the first American psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1883.
A medical doctor who become one of the founding fathers of psychology. He conducted years of research in the physiology lab of the University of Vienna and later established his own practice in 1886. He believed that many nervous ailments were psychological rather than physiological. He developed a psychodynamic theory. His theories were never completely accepted by mainstream psychology, and in recent years his influence on clinical psychology and psychotherapy was declined.
Edward Bradford Titchener
A British psychologist who believed that all consciousness (even complex thoughts) could be broken down into the three basic elements of physical sensations, feelings, and images, and that psychology's role should be to identify these components and show how they can be combined and integrated.
John B. Watson
An American psychologist who developed a view of psychology known was behaviorism. He believed that all mental experiences are the result of physiological changes in response to conditioning. He believed fears could be eliminated by conditioning.
1st Psychology Lab
was founded in 1875 at the University of Leipzig in Germany by Wilhelm Wundt. Most psychologists agree with was when psychology was "born."
The study of aspects of human growth and change. Most psychologists in this field specialize in a particular area (e.g. child psychology, adolescent psychology, or lifespan psychology).
The study of the biological basis of human behavior, thoughts, and emotions.
The research conducted by those who study basic psychological processes.
The study of the differences in positive and negative personality traits of individuals.
The assessment and treatment of people with psychological disorders. Psychologists in this field hold a PhD or PsyD in psychology as a result of a 4- to 6- year graduate program, plus a 1-year internship in psychological assessment and psychotherapy and at least 1 more year of supervised practice. May be permitted to prescribe medication with additional training.
The adjustment and treatment of people suffering from everyday problems.
The study of social influences, how they are exerted, and their effects.
Industrial and organizational psychology
The principles of psychology applied to the workplace for the purpose of training personnel and improving productivity.
The question of the overall influence of genes vs the influence of experience on human behavior.
The question of the degree to which traits developed in childhood change or remain set and, correspondingly, the degree with which we change and develop throughout our lifespans.
The question of how well our understanding of psychology applies to subsets of people outside of white, middle-class men.
The question of how the mind and body are connected.
An approach to knowledge that relies on the collection of data, generation of a theory, production of a testable hypothesis, and empirical testing of that hypothesis.
The focus on the study of infants and children.
The focus on the study of how puberty affects a range of developmental phenomena.
The focus on the study of the challenges and changes of adulthood.
The focus on the study of the workings of the brain and nervous system.
The focus on the study of the body's biochemistry and the ways that hormones, psychoactive medications, and "social drugs" affect us.
The exploration of the impact of heredity on both normal and abnormal behavior.
A point of view that is subjective in nature and based upon the social and cultural background or environment of the person(s) involved.
A reward for completing a task or engaging in a certain behavior.
School of psychology that studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns. Koffka, Köhler, and Wertheimer associated.
School of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one's full human potential.
"Whole" or "form."
School of psychology devoted to the study of mental processes in the broadest sense.
The shift away from a limited focus on behavior toward a broad interest in such mental processes as memory decision making, and information processing that occurred as behaviorism fell out of favor in the late 1960s.
The study of the neurological mechanisms that underlie such cognitive processes as learning, memory, intelligence, and emotion.
An approach to, and subfield of, psychology that is concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental processes
An emerging field of psychology that focuses on positive experiences, including subjective well-being, self-determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
Mary Whiton Calkins
Analyzed the way in which people learn verbal material and made contributions to self-psychology. Was elected and served as the first female president of the APA in 1905.
Women in psychology
Faced discrimination despite massive contributions to the field of psychology. Twenty-two were included in Cattell's American Men of Science. Now outnumber men almost 2 to 1 as members of the APA.
Studied creativity; in particular, the positive effects that exposure to creative role models can have on people.
The psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female.
The expectation that working mothers will also primarily keep house and care for children.
This offers a wide variety of views on the social roles of women and men, the problems and rewards of those roles, and prescriptions for changing those roles.
Refers to the direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes.
A subpopulation of a species, defined according to an identifiable characteristic (that is, geographic location, skin color, hair texture, genes, facial features, and so forth.
Division of the APA created in the mid-1980s devoted to the study of ethnic minority issues.
Division 44 ("Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues")
Division of the the APA founded in 1985 to promote research and education regarding sexual orientation.
The physical and genetic factors of being either male or female.
A common cultural heritage—including religion, language, or ancestry—that is shared by a group of individuals.
A survey found that less than ____ of articles in psychology journals focused on racial and ethnic minorities.
A former president of the APA who received national recognition for the important work he and his wife did on the effects of segregation on black children.
Received national recognition for the important work she and her husband did on the effects of segregation on black children.
Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court division that outlawed segregation in schools in the US, citing research by the Clarks.
The tangible goods and the values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed from one generation to another.
Research involving the exploration of the extent to which people differ from one culture to another.
value independence and personal achievement.
value interdependence, fitting in, and harmonious relationships.
Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies
Written by Margaret Mead in 1955 and still cited by feminists and others as showing that definitions of masculinity and femininity are not biological givens, but are instead created by cultures and learned by their members along with other cultural norms, which makes them subject to change.
Koffka, Köhler, and Wertheimer
German psychologist interested in perception most closely associated with the Gestalt school of psychology.
Research method involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather than in the laboratory.
Expectations or biases of the observer that might distort of influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed.
A world-famous primatologist who has spent most of her adult life observing chimpanzees in their natural environment in Africa.
Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals.
Research technique in which questionnaires r interviews are administered to a selected group of people.
Based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables. Does not indicate causation.
Relationship between two or more variables.
Research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior.
Individuals whose reactions or responses are observed in an experiment.
Manipulated to test its effects on the other, dependent variables.
Measured to see how it is changed by manipulations in the independent variable.
The group subjected to a change in the independent variable.
The group not subjected to a change in the independent variable; used for comparison with the experimental group.
Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretation.
Each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected.
Carefully chosen so that the characteristics of the participants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population.
Participants were deceived into into thinking they were administering an electric shock to another person in order to see if the participants would continue to administer the shocks even after great pain was expressed if given permission by the researcher.
APA code of ethics ("Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct")
Ethical guidelines published by the APA in 1953 and assessed and revised annually. Requires documented, informed consent; clear explanation of possible risks; and alternate methods of obtaining credit if such is offered. Says that deception about the goals of the research can be used only when necessary to the integrity of the research. Says that animals must be properly cared for by psychologists who have been trained to do so and that reasonable efforts must be made to minimize discomfort, infection, etc. May only be subjected to pain, stress, or privation when an alternative procedure is unavailable. If the animal must be put down, this must be done so rapidly and humanely.
Medical doctor who,in addition to 4 years of medical training, has completed 3 years of residency training in psychiatry, most of which is spent in a supervised clinical practice. In many states, they are the only mental health professionals licensed to prescribe medications.
A psychiatrist or psychologist who has received additional specialized training in psychoanalytic theory and practice.
Typically has a MSW or DSW and often work under the supervision of psychiatrists or clinical psychologists, although in some states they may be licensed to practice independently.
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