3.A.2: Cell Division
Terms in this set (63)
The process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells.
The ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism.
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size.
Any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells.
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins.
Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S subphase of interphase.
The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis.
In animal cells, a cytoplasmic organelle that organizes the mitotic spindle fibers during cell reproductions.
Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
Cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes.
Mitosis and cytokinesis.
The cell cycle is directed by these internal controls.
Replication of DNA during S-phase of interphase.
Alignment of chromosomes prior to separation.
Separation of chromosomes.
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.
Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions.
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
When a cell specializes, it often enters into a stage where it no longer divides, but it can reenter the cell cycle when given appropriate cues.
Disease that results from disruptions of cell cycle control.
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
A structure in animal cells containing centrioles from which the spindle fibers develop.
Connects the centrosome with the kinetochore in the centromere region of the chromosome.
A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
Microtubules and fibers that radiate out from the centrioles.
Plane midway between the two poles of the cell where chromosomes line up during metaphase.
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
density dependent inhibition
The arrest of cell division that occurs when cells grown in a laboratory dish touch one another.
Regulatory proteins that ensure that the events of cell division occur in the proper sequence and at the correct rate.
Complex of cyclin and kinase.
A cyclin-Cdk complex that causes the cell to move from interphase into mitosis.
The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; specifically.
One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color.
alteration of generations
The alteration of two or more different forms in the life cycle of a plant or animal.
Chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual.
One parent produces a genetically identical offspring by mitosis.
X-shaped regions where crossing over occurred.
Nonsister chromatids exchanging DNA segments.
Has two sets of chromosomes.
Union of gametes.
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm that unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Units of heredity made up of DNA.
One set of chromosomes.
Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes.
Photograph of chromosomes grouped in order and in pairs.
All of the events in the growth and development of an organism until the organism reaches sexual maturity.
The specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome.
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity.
Different chromatids (maternal and paternal) of the same chromosome.
Chromosomes that carry genes from each parent. http://o.quizlet.com/Hk486OhrBK7sHtaml1nnmg.png
X and Y chromosomes.
When two parents give unique combination of genes to offspring.
Homologous chromosomes pair up, aligned gene by gene.
A pair of chromosomes form tetrads made up of four chromatids.
Fertilized egg; carries one set of chromosomes from each parent.
Is demonstrated by the differences in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings.
platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
One of the numerous proteins that regulate the cell cycle.
law of independent assortment
The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes.
law of segregation
Allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. Due to separation of homologous chromosomes in Meiosis I.
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