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Number of nerve endings found within 1 inch of skin


Number of oil glands found within 1 inch of skin


Number of cold & heat receptors found within 1 inch of skin

12 feet

Nerves found within 1 inch of skin

15 feet

Blood vessels found within 1 inch of skin

15 feet

Capillaries found within 1 inch of skin


Number of pressure receptors found within 1 inch of skin


Number of hairs found within 1 inch of skin


Number of sweat glands found within 1 inch of skin

Cell Survival

4 elements needed: Nourishment, Protection, Function & Proliferation


Red/yellow type of melanin


Dark/black type of melanin

Birth layer

Another name for Basal layer or Stratum Germinativum


Replaced every seven years

Daughter Cells

Cells that divide into two identical cells

Palatine bones (2)

Forms the hard palate of the mouth, not affected by facial massage

Turbinal (1)

also known as the nasal bone, thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls for the nasal septum, not affected by facial massage

Vomer (1)

flat, thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum, not affected by facial massage


Greek word for "to produce"

Ground Substance

The fluid matrix in the dermis


Another name for water


Technical term for oil-water balance on the skin's surface

Intercellular Lipids and Proteins

Surround cells and provide protection, hydration & nourishment to the cells


Greek word for glue




Phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, squalene & waxes

One or two pints

How much liquids containing salts are eliminiated daily thru sudoriferous pores in the skin


Examples are Mexican wild yam, sage, hops & soy


Sense of touch


Transepidermal Water Loss, the water loss caused by evaporation of the skin's surface


An enzyme involved in melanin production


Located in the uppermost part of the midbrain had has 2 main parts, Thalamus and Hypothalamus


Located in the lower part of the diencephalon, controls many bodily functions such as body temperature; it also controls the pituitary gland


Located in the upper part of the diencephalon acts as a relay station for sensory impulses and play a role in the recognition of pain and temperature in the body


The rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of the heat and light


Water loving or capable of combining with or attracting water


Oil loving or having a affinity or attraction to fats & oils


Term for opening of the follicle

Sebaceous filaments

Similar to open comedones, mainly solidified impaction of oil without the cell matter


An acquired, thickened patch of epidermis. Example Callus or a corn


An adnormal growth many are benign or harmless also used to describe wasting away


Hair grows under the surface, instead of growing up & out of the follicle, causing a bacterial infection


Razor bumps without the pus or infection

Sebaceous hyperplasia

Benign lesions frequently seen in the oilier areas of the face. Over growths of the sebaceous glands appear similar to open comedones - doughnut shaped


A type of fungi that cause skin, hair & nail infections

Mycobacterium Fortuitum Furunculous

Cutaneous infections acquired from whirlpools, footbahs, caused a concern in pedicure industry in 2000


One celled microorganisms with both plant & animal charactertistics


Vegetable (plant) parasites, including molds, mildews & yeasts


A disease of the scalp, but occurring occasionally on any part of the skin & even at times on mucous membranes


A hospital grade disfectant that is formulated to destroy viruses


Responsible for food poisening and a wide range of diseases including toxic shock syndrome


Previously used in spas or salons as a disinfectant for its anti-bacterial properties, is no longer considered safe


A caustic poision (carbonic acid) used to reliably to disinfect implements


Should be mixed disinfectant to water; not water to disinfectant

Metal implements

Instruments disinfected in 5% solution of Phenolic Disinfectant

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QUATS)

Takes 10 - 15 minutes to disinfectant instruments

Aseptic procedure

Process of properly handling sterilized and disinfected equipment and supplies so that they do not become contaminated by microorganisms until they are used on a client

Methicillin-resistant staphylocous aureus (MRSA)

Bacterium that cause infections in different parts of the body, resistant to some commonly used antibotics


Bacteria that rarely shows active mobility or self movement


A hospital grade disfectant that is formulated to destroy bacteria


A hospital grade disfectant that is formulated to destroy fungi


A hospital grade disfectant that is formulated to destroy pseudomonas bacteria


A hospital grade disfectant that is formulated to destroy tuberculosis


Metals, minerals and pure water are examples of


Gasoline, plastics, synethic fabrics, and fertilizers are examples of

Compound molecules

Also known as compounds

Elemental molecules

Contain two or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically

Two types of molecules

Elemental molecules & compound molecules


Chemical reaction creates a chemical change in the identity of the substance

Acid-alkalie neturalization

When an acid is mixed with an alkali, also called a base, in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water (H2O) and a salt


Rapid, oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light

Free radicals

Cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new one of these in the process and also known as super oxidixers


One of the most common types of chemical reactions


Intensive mxing of mutally insoluble substances to obtain a soluble suspension or emulsion, for example homogenzing milk so that the cream doesn't separate out


Complete mirror images of each other, much as one's left & right hands are "the same" but opposite


Surface active agents that reduces surface tension between the skin & the product to increase product spreadability

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