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Research and Writing Vocabulary
Terms in this set (50)
A fallacy committed when a word or part of a quotation is inappropiatly emphazised orquoted out of context.
An arguement that a phenomenon will exist in a more probable situation because it exists in a less proable situation.
A word or phrase that can have two or more meanings.
A fallacy of definition that occurs when someone uses a vague ambiguous phrase in two different ways within the same argument.
An argument technique that draws a conclusion based on relevant similarities between two examples.
Counterexamples that are exceptions or odd occurrences that don't fit a normal pattern.
Antecedent and Consequence:
An argument technique that draws a conclusion based on the natural implications of a situation or example.
Appeal to Moderation
A fallacy that assumes that the correct answer is always a "middle ground" between two extremes.
A fallacy committed when a speaker argues that because everyone believes something or does something, you should do it too.
Cause and Effect:
An argument technique that draws a conclusion by demonstrating that one phenomenon caused the other.
A common topic that develops an argument by examining historical examples or what it is likely to occur.
A fallacy that occurs when the speaker attempts to apply a general rule, such as a proverb, as if it is a rule.
A common topic that develops an argument by examining similarities, dissimilarities, degree or similarity or dissimilarity.
A statement that used the word "not" to oppose another statement by denying that statement altogether.
The opposite of a proposition by using an antonym to express it's opposite position.
Examples that appear to disprove a thesis.
An explanation of a word.
An argument technique that examines the relative worth of an example to determine the degree of it's placement on scales of good and bad, practical and impractical, etc.
An argument strategy that that forms a conclusion from examining the the dissimilarities between two examples.
A definition technique used to explain a word in greater detail.
Distinction without Difference:
A fallacy that occurs when a speaker claims a difference between two examples when no differences actually exist.
A fallacy committed when a person uses alternative definitions of a word ass though he were using one definition
A definition technique using an in-depth illustration to define a word.
The history and origin of a word.
A fallacy that occurs when an analogy fails because the things being compared are too dissimilar.
A fallacy that occurs when a speaker uses a weak, causal connection as the basis of an argument.
A large class containing a wide variety of items sharing key similarities.
A fallacy that makes a generalization about a class of things based on too few examples.
Idol of the Cave:
These idols represent our tendency to favor the views common to our race, ethnicity, or upbringing over any other views, which can hinder our ability to understand people who are very different from us.
Idol of the Marketplace:
These idols represent our tendency to favor our interpretation of words over any other interpretation, which can lead to confusion while communicating.
Idol of the Theatre:
These idols represent our tendency to cherish the majority or established opinion over minority or novel opinion, which can inhibit our ability to relinquish flawed philosophies or paradigms.
Idol of the Tribe.
Theses idols represent our tendency to make judgements or assumptions based on our physical senses which are prone to error.
Illegitimate Appeal to Authority:
A fallacy of testimony in which there is an illegitimate, or illogical, appeal to one individual expert.
Method of Agreement:
Examining phenomenon sharing a common characteristic to determine the recurring factor causing the phenomenon.
Method of Agreement and Difference:
Combines the methods of agreement of difference to test casual relationships.
Method of Difference:
Examining a phenomenon that lacks the characteristics of an observed example to determine which possible casual factor is absent in the example lacking a certain characteristic.
Method of Concomitant Variance:
Examining factors that appear to fluctuate simultaneously so that one increases as the other increases, or decreases as the other decreases.
Method of Residuals:
Hypothesizing several possible casual factors for a phenomenon and then gradually eliminating all unlikely casual factors to determine the most likely casual factor.
A cause that must be present in order to produce a certain event.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc:
Latin name for the false cause fallacy; assuming that because A came before B, A must have caused B.
Looking at the last in order to figure out present or future action.
A wise saying that provides a general principle for living.
A sample in which all possible participants or examples have an equal chance of being selected for observation.
A common topic that develops an argument by examining the connection or implications between two examples.
A group specially selected for a research study and which typically represents a picture of the general population.
A variation in the fallacy of false cause is which it is assumed that one step in a given direction will lead much further down that path without an argument wing given for why one thing will inevitably lead to another.
A fallacy in which the speaker appeals to a sense of elitism or to those of "discriminating tastes".
Defining a word by how it differs from other words in the same genus.
A cause that may, but not necessarily, bring about a certain effect.
A spoken or written account of an experience.
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