53 terms

BIO 211 Exam 4

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

a. autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic
Which of the following statements correctly describes a distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

a. autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic
b. only heterotrophs require oxygen
c. only heterotrophs have mitochondria
d. cellular respiration is unique to heterotrophs
a. 420 nm
What wavelength of light in the figure is most effective in driving photosynthesis?

a. 420 nm
b. 625 nm
c. 575 nm
d. 730 nm
d. bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light. What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas.

a. bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused by an increase in photosynthesis
b. bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and blue light
c. bacteria are attracted to red and blue light and thus these wavelengths are more reactive than other wavelengths
d. bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released
d. this arrangement enables the plant to absorb light energy of a variety of wavelengths
Why are the reaction centers of photosystems composed of several structurally different pigments?

a. this arrangement enables the reaction center to excite electrons to a higher energy level
b. this arrangement enables the plant to absorb more photons from light energy, all of which are the same wavelength.
c. excited electrons must pass through several pigments before they can be transferred to electron acceptors of the electron transport chain.
d. this arrangement enables the plant to absorb light energy of a variety of wavelengths.
c. an electron is excited
Which of the following events accompanies absorption of energy by chlorophyll molecules of the reaction-center complex?

a. ATP is synthesized from the energy absorbed.
b. a molecule of water is split.
c. an electron is excited.
d. NADP+ is reduced to NADPH
c. splitting water molecules
The oxygen released by photosynthesis is produced by which of the following processes?

a. the electron transfer system of photosystem I
b. chemiosmosis
c. splitting water molecules
d. the electron transfer system of photosystem II
c. the relationship between wavelength of light and the rate of photosynthesis
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest group were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light. Which of the following statements describes a relationship that Engelmann's experiment helped to determine?

a. the relationship between wavelength of light and the amount of heat released
b. the relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and the rate of photosynthesis
c. the relationship between the wavelength of light and the rate of photosynthesis
d. the relationship between wavelength of light and the rate of aerobic respiration
b. ATP and NADPH
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin Cycle with ____________

a. CO2 and ATP
b. ATP and NADPH
c. light energy
d. H2O and NADPH
d. in both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
In which reactions of cellular respiration does substrate level phosphorylation occur?

a. only in the electron transport chain
b. only in the citric acid cycle
c. only in glycolysis
d. in both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
a. the more electronegative atom is reduced, and energy is released
What happens when electrons are passed from one atom to a more electronegative atom?

a. the more electronegative atom is reduced, and energy is released
b. the more electronegative atom is oxidized, and energy is consumed
c. the more electronegative atom is oxidized, and energy is released
d. the more electronegative atom is reduced, and energy is consumed
c. reduced
When a molecule of NAD+ gains a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes ______________

a. oxidized
b. redoxed
c. reduced
d. dehydrogenated
a. NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle
Which of the following statements about NAD+ is true?

a. NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle
b. in the absence of NAD+, glycolysis can still function
c. NAD+ can donate electrons for use in oxidative phosphorylation
d. NAD+ has more chemical energy than NADH
b. accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is directly involved in which of the following processes or events?

a. the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
b. accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
c. the citric acid cycle
d. glycolysis
d. catabolic processes are activated that generate more ATP
A cell has enough available ATP to meet its needs for about 30 seconds. What is likely to happen when an athlete exhausts his or her ATP supply?

a. other cells take over, and the muscle cells that have used up their ATP cease to function
b. he or she has to sit down to rest
c. ATP is transported into the cell from the circulatory system
d. catabolic processes are activated that generate more ATP
a. 95%
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?

a. 95%
b. 38%
c. 2%
d. 0%
d. 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
Starting with one molecule of glucose, glycolysis results in the net production of which of the following sets of energy-containing products?

a. 4 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 4 ATP
b. 6 CO2, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
c. 2 NAD+, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
d. 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
c. the citric acid cycle
During which of the following metabolic processes is most of the CO2 from the catabolism of glucose is released?

a. oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
b. electron transport
c. the citric acid cycle
d. glycolysis
a. NADH and FADH2
Which electron carrier(s) function in the citric acid cycle?

a. NADH and FADH2
b. the electron transport chain
c. NAD+ only
d. ADP and ATP
d. acetyl CoA
Which one of the following is formed by the removal of a carbon from a molecule of pyruvate?

a. water
b. ATP
c. citrate
d. acetyl CoA
b. the harnessing of energy from high-energy electrons derived from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
Which of the following events takes place in the electron transport chain?

a. the breakdown of an acetyl group to carbon dioxide
b. the harnessing of energy from high-energy electrons derived from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
c. substrate-level phosphorylation
d. the breakdown of glucose into six carbon dioxide molecules
a. it consists of a series of a series of redox reactions
Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain is true?

a. it consists of a series of redox reactions
b. it occurs in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
c. it is driven by ATP hydrolysis
d. it includes a series of hydrolysis reactions associated with mitochondrial membranes
d. oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following processes is driven by chemiosmosis?

a. reduction of NAD+ to NADH
b. ATP hydrolysis
c. substrate-level phosphorylation
d. oxidative phosphorylation
a. glucose --> NADH --> electron transport chain --> oxygen
Which of the following sequences describes the path by which electrons travel downhill energetically in aerobic respiration?

a. glucose --> NADH --> electron transport chain --> oxygen
b. glucose --> pyruvate --> electron transport chain --> NADH --> ATP
c. food --> glycolysis --> citric acid cycle --> NADH --> ATP
d. glucose --> pyruvate --> ATP --> oxygen
b. it serves as the final electron acceptor for electrons from the electron transport chain
Which of the following statements best describes the primary role played by oxygen in cellular respiration?

a. it serves as an acceptor for carbon, forming CO2 in the citric acid cycle
b. it serves as the final electron acceptor for electrons from the electron transport chain
c. it yields energy in the form of ATP as it is passed down the electron transport chain
d. it oxidizes glucose to form two molecules of pyruvate
a. 30-32
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the compete oxidation of one molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) on aerobic cellular respiration?

a. 30-32
b. 4
c. 2
d. 18-24
c. glycolysis
Which of the following metabolic processes normally occurs regardless of whether or not oxygen (O2) is present?

a. oxidative phosphorylation
b. lactate fermentation
c. glycolysis
d. citric acid cycle
d. glycolysis and fermentation
Which of the following metabolic processes take place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

a. oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
b. fermentation and chemiosmosis
c. citric acid cycle
d. glycolysis and fermentation
b. ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, which results in the production of which of the following sets of molecules?

a. ATP, NADH, and ethanol
b. ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
c. ATP, CO2, and lactate
d. ATP, CO2, and acetyl CoA
d. it is a facultative anaerobic organism
An organism is discovered that thrives in both the presence and absence of oxygen. Interestingly, as oxygen is removed from the organisms environment, the rate of sugar consumption increases while the growth rate decreases. What do these observations suggest about the likely identity of this organism?

a. it is an obligate anaerobic organism
b. it is an unremarkable eukaryotic organism
c. it is a photosynthetic organism
d. it is a facultative anaerobic organism
b. it does not involve organelles or specialized structures, does not require oxygen, and is present in most organisms
Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?

a. it produces much less ATP than does oxidative phosphorylation
b. it does not involve organelles or specialized structures, does not require oxygen, and is present in most organisms
c. it requires the presence of membrane-enclosed organelles found only in eukaryotic cells
d. it is present in prokaryotic cells but not eukaryotic cells
a. provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions

a. provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient
b. are the source of energy driving prokaryotic ATP synthesis
c. reduce carbon atoms to carbon dioxide
d. are coupled via phosphorylated intermediates to endergonic processes
d. mitochondrial intermembrane space
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location in eukaryotic cells?

a. mitochondrial inner membrane
b. mitochondrial matrix
c. cytoplasm adjacent to the mitochondrial outer membrane
d. mitochondrial intermembrane space
d. mitochondrial inner membrane
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

a. mitochondrial matrix
b. mitochondrial outer membrane
c. mitochondrial inter membrane space
d. mitochondrial inner membrane
a. photosynthesis occurs only in the light, and cellular respiration occurs in both the dark and the light
Under what conditions do photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in plants?

a. photosynthesis occurs only in the light, and cellular respiration occurs in both the dark and the light
b. photosynthesis occurs only in the light, and cellular respiration occurs only in the dark
c. photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in both the dark and the light
d. photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur only in the light
a. splitting water molecules
The oxygen released by photosynthesis is produced by which of the following processes?

a. splitting water molecules
b. the electron transfer system of photosystem II
c. the electron transfer system of photosystem I
d. chemiosmosis
a. other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a
The figure shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different?

a. other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a
b. oxygen given off during photosynthesis interferes with the absorption of light
c. green and yellow wavelengths inhibit the absorption of red and blue wavelengths
d. aerobic bacteria take up oxygen, which changes the measurement of the rate of photosynthesis
c. it is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient
What happens to the free energy released as electrons are passed from photosystem II to photosystem I through a series of electron carriers?

a. it is used to synthesize ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation
b. it excites electrons of the reaction center in photosystem I
c. it is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient
d. it is used to phosphorylate NAD+ to NADPH
a. they absorb and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll
What is the function of the pigment molecules in a light-harvesting complex in the thylakoid membranes?

a. they absorb and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll
b. they transfer electrons to NADP+
c. they split water and release oxygen from the reaction-center chlorophyll
d. they synthesize ATP from ADP and organic phosphate
b. ATP and NADPH
What are the products of linear electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis?

a. ADP and NADP+
b. ATP and NADPH
c. ATP and P700
d. heat and fluorescence
d. ATP
What are the products of cyclic electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis?

a. ATP and NADPH
b. ADP and NADP+
c. heat and fluorescence
d. ATP
a. Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; cellular respiration releases energy from complex organic molecules
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

a. Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; cellular respiration releases energy from complex organic molecules
b. photosynthesis occurs only in plants; cellular respiration occurs only in animals
c. photosynthesis is catabolic; cellular respiration is anabolic
d. cellular respiration runs the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis in reverse
b. photosynthesis and respiration
In photosynthetic cells, synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis occurs during _____________

a. respiration only
b. photosynthesis and respiration
c. photosynthesis only
d. photosynthesis, respiration, and fermentation
b. they are inversely related
What is the relationship between the wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per photon?

a. they are logarithmically related
b. they are inversely related
c. they are separate phenomena
d. they have a direct, linear relationship
a. the light reactions alone
In a plant, which of the following reactions produce molecular oxygen (O2)?

a. the light reactions alone
b. the Calvin Cycle alone
c. the light reactions and the calvin cycle
d. neither the light reactions nor the calvin cycle
b. removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules
Which of the following processes is most directly driven by light energy?

a. reduction of NADP+ molecules
b. removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules
c. carbon fixation in the stroma
d. creation of a pH gradient by pumping protons across the thylakoid membrane
a. stroma of the chloroplasts
Where in a plant cell does the Calvin Cycle take place?

a. stroma of the chloroplasts
b. thylakoid membrane
c. outer membrane of the chloroplasts
d. interior of the thylakoid (thylakoid space)
b. regeneration of RuBP
In the initial step of carbon fixation, a molecule of CO2 is attached to RuBP to produce a six-carbon molecule, which is immediately split to produce two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. After phosphorylation and reduction produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what more needs to occur to complete the Calvin Cycle?

a. addition of a pair of electrons from NADPH
b. regeneration of RuBP
c. regeneration of ATP from ADP
d. regeneration of NADP
d. NADPH
The reducing power for Calvin Cycle reactions is provided by which of the following molecules?

a. NADP+
b. NADH
c. ATP
d. NADPH
b. fix CO2 into organic acids during the night
CAM plants keep stomata closed in the daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they ___________

a. use photosystem I and photosystem II at night
b. fix CO2 into organic acids during the night
c. fix CO2 into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells
d. fix CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells
d. in both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially
How is photosynthesis similar in C4 plants and CAM plants?

a. in both cases, only photosystem I is used
b. both types of plants make sugar without the Calvin Cycle
c. both types of plants make most of their sugars in the dark
d. in both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially
b. release of oxygen
Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin Cycle?

a. regeneration of the CO2 acceptor
b. release of oxygen
c. oxidation of NADPH
d. carbon fixation
c. it produces carbon dioxide and consumes ATP and oxygen
Which of the following statements summarizes the metabolic results of photorespiration?

a. it produces oxygen and consumes ATP and carbon dioxide
b. it produces ATP and consumes oxygen and carbon dioxide
c. it produces carbon dioxide and consumes ATP and oxygen
d. it produces oxygen and ATP and consumes carbon dioxide
b. H2O --> NADPH --> Calvin Cycle
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

a. NADPH --> O2 --> CO2
b. H2O --> NADPH --> Calvin Cycle
c. NADPH --> electron transport chain --> O2
d. NADPH --> chlorophyll --> Calvin Cycle