FDR's policies to help ease the Great Depression during the 1st two years of his presidency. Much of it passed in the 1st 100 Days, in an unprecedented flurry of laws. It aimed for the three R's: relief, recovery, reform. Included Bank Holiday, Glass-Steagal (SEC), CCC, AAA, TVA, NIRA, FDIC, FERA Normandy Invasion, also called Operation Overlord, during World War II, the Allied invasion of western Europe, which was launched on June 6, 1944 (the most celebrated D-Day of the war), with the simultaneous landing of U.S., British, and Canadian forces on five separate beachheads in Normandy, France. By the end of August 1944 all of northern France was liberated, and the invading forces reorganized for the drive into Germany, where they would eventually meet with Soviet forces advancing from the east to bring an end to the Nazi Reich. The Montgomery Bus Boycott, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a US Supreme Court decision that laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional. MLK Jr. led boycott protests and became a national figure as a result. nonviolent protest against a segregated lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C., that began on Feb. 1, 1960. Its success led to a wider sit-in movement, organized primarily by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), that spread throughout the South. The sit-in was organized by Ezell Blair, Jr., Franklin McCain, Joseph McNeil, and David Richmond—all African Americans and all students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro. Influenced by the nonviolent protest techniques of Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. JFK called for volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by fighting poverty in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Volunteers went abroad to work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, entrepreneurs in education, hunger, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment. December 24, 1979 was the day that Soviet forces, after a series of perpetual pleas for assistance by the Afghan government, invaded Afghanistan, marking the beginning of the Soviet War in Afghanistan that lasted about 9 years. The two opposing sides consisted of the USSR and the democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Sunni Mujahideen (Islamic warriors), who were supported by Pakistan, China, the US, the UK, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. These forces would later form the Taliban and al-Qaeda which would come to haunt the US in a classic case of "blowback"