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Physiology Practice Final
Terms in this set (58)
Which of the following can diffuse through a cell membrane?
Primary active transport is most directly involves in which of the following?
Where is the majority of water reabsorbed in the nephron?
proximal convoluted tubule
Where is salt but not water reabsorbed in the nephron?
ascending loop of henle
Which of the following is a direct result of hypovolemic shock rather than a physiological response to counteract the effect of reduced blood volume?
low blood pressure
Which of the following is true about aldosterone?
its release is regulated by angiotensin
Which of the following are involved in ventilation?
-pacemaker cells in the brain
-carotid and aortic bodies
-chemoreceptors in the brain
The capillary system surrounded by Bowman's capsule where blood is filtered is called...
Which of the following is the normal physiological response to blood alkalosis?
decreased expiration of CO2
Where does the action potential of a neuron originate?
A positive ion has an ion equilibrium potential of 0. If all channels of an axonal membrane are open at the resting membrane potential, which direction will this ion move?
onto the cell
Which channel causes the rapid depolarization (the beginning of a 'spike') of the action potential?
voltage-gated Na+ channel
Which of the following involves positive feedback?
-opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels
-LH surge causing ovulation
A drug that specifically inhibits uptake of Ca++ through the sacroplasmic membrane (Ca++ channel blocker) will cause which of the following?
relaxation and dilation of arterioles
Which of the following will cause the greatest increase in the rate of action potential propagation along an axon?
increased amount of myelination
Which of the following are characteristics of a nicotonic receptor?
it is found at the motor end plate
Which of the following is the most dangerous?
Which of the following is the neurotransmitter specifically involved in sensing pain?
Which of the following is an important function of the sympathetic nervous system?
controls fight or flight response
Which of the following is true about the nervous and endocrine systems?
the response time is faster for the nervous system
Which of the following is true about steroid hormones?
they typically enter the cell and bind to DNA
Injection of a high concentration of testosterone into a male causes the development of female breast tissue. This effect of testosterone injection is called...
Which of the following are true about vaccination?
-it involves inducing a primary response
-it involves injection of an antigen of reduced virulence
Which of the following is an example of regulation?
control of cross bridge formation by troponin
Which of the following are steroid hormones?
Which of the following does not contribute significantly to type-2 (adult onset) diabetes?
autoimmune destruction of beta cells of pancreas
Which of the following are true about glycolysis?
the end product is pyruvic acid
Which of the following is true about the innate immune response?
the response is to general rather than specific feature of pathogens
Which of the following are phagocytotic?
Which of the following produces antibodies?
Which cell(s) must directly contact a pathogen such as a bacterium to kill it?
Which of the following are important components of inflammation?
Which of the following are autoimmune diseases?
-type 1 diabetes (juvenile onset)
Which proteins are found in thin filaments?
Which of the following binds Ca++ ions to initiate muscle contraction?
Excitation-contraction coupling involves the release of Ca++ from...
Which of the following are important respiratory adaptations to low O2 at high altitudes?
-increases production of red blood cells
-increased cardiac output
Which of the following will cause the greatest increase in the force of whole-muscle contraction?
increasing the number of motor units recruited
Which of the following is true about low intensity exercise?
-it occurs approximately 25% aerobic capacity
-the primary fuel is lipid
High intensity exercise typically increases strength by...
increasing the number of sarcomeres in the muscle cell
Which type of muscle can be stretched the greatest but still contract efficiently?
Complement is necessary for...
destruction of a pathogen by the immune system
Which parts of the heart comprise systemic circulation?
right atrium, left ventricle
What is the cause of the first heart sound -- "lub" of the "lub-dub"?
closing of the atrioventricular valves
What factors correct for blood acidosis produced by high altitudes?
none of the above -- blood pH becomes alkaline at high altitude
Heart contraction involves passage of the cardiac action potential from the av node through...
the bundle of his
Which wave on an EKG is due to depolarization of the atria?
Which of the following plays an important role in the inhibition of heart rate?
-parasympathetic nervous system
Starling's "Law of the Heart" is defined as the relationship between which of the following?
stroke volume and end-diastolic volume
Congestive heart failure of the left ventricle...
-is treated with beta blockers
-results in pulmonary edema
Most CO2 in the blood is...
in the form of bicarbonate
You are reading an article that discusses a new enzyme found in the sarcosome of a cell. From your knowledge of physiology you know that the enzyme is found in which type of cell?
Which of the following is most important in inspiration?
contraction of diaphragm
Which of the following are true about hemoglobin?
-it contains Fe++ which binds to oxygen
-it is composed of 4 subunits, each of which binds oxygen
-binding of DPG increases unloading of O2 (release of O2 from hemoglobin)
A right-shifted oxygen dissociation curve...
is found in adult hemoglobin in the presence of lactic acid
Which of the following are components of minute volume?
tidal volume and respiration rate
Which of the following are true about fast-twitch muscle fibers (compared to slow-twitch fibers)?
-are primarily anaerobic
-they fatigue quickly
An arteriole whose radius is reduced to 1/2 of its length will reduce blood flow to what amount of the original blood flow?
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