381 terms

Biology

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photosynthesis
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen
photosynthesis equation(very important)
6CO2 + 6H2O --> light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
chloroplasts
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
main function of chloroplasts is to produce food (glucose)
Chloroplasts contain the pigment, chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs most of the colors in the color spectrum, and reflects only green and yellow wavelengths of light. This is why we see leaves as green or yellow - because these colors are reflected into our eyes.
glucose
another name for sugar C6H12O6
three things used for making glucose are sunlight water and carbon dioxide
used for energy and growth
sunlight
main source of energy
cellular respiration
C6H1206->CO2 + H20+ ENERGY (released)
goal is to create ATP
occurs in all living things
cell
mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
the energy is stored in ATP until it is released by the reactions remove a phosphate from ATP
a simple way of remembering it is just that it's just energy
Metabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism's life functions.
Anabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
Catabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.
Photosynthesis
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food.
Herbivores
Organisms that eat only plants.
Carnivores
Organisms that eat only organisms other than plants.
Omnivores
Organisms that eat both plants and other organisms.
Producers
Organisms that produce their own food.
Consumers
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food.
Decomposers
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms.
Autotrophs
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
Heterotrophs
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.
Receptors
Special structures that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their internal or external environment.
Asexual reproduction
Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction that requires two organisms
Inheritance
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring.
Mutation
An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents
Hypothesis
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
Theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
Scientific law
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.
Microorganisms
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye.
Abiogenesis
The idea that long ago, very simple life forms spontaneously appeared through chemical reactions.
Prokaryotic cell
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
Eukaryotic cell
A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
Species
A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units.
Taxonomy
The science of classifying organisms.
Binomial nomenclature
Naming an organism with its genus and species name.
Pathogen
An organism that causes disease.
Saprophyte
An organism that feeds of dead matter.
Parasite
An organism that feeds on a living host.
Aerobic organism
An organism that requires oxygen.
Anaerobic organism
An organism that does not require oxygen.
Steady state
A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born.
Exponential growth
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
Logistic growth
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources.
Conjugation
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.
Plasmid
A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.
Transformation
The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.
Transduction
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another.
Endospore
The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers.
Strains
Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits.
Pseudopod
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.
Nucleus
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's main DNA.
Vacuole
A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell.
Ectoplasm
The thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells.
Endoplasm
The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells.
Flagellate
A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum.
Pellicle
A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane.
Chloroplast
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
Eyespot
A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa
Symbiosis
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
Mutualism
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association.
Commonesalism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
Parasitism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
Cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion.
Spore
A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating.
Plankton
Tiny organisms that float in the water.
Zooplankton
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa.
Phytoplankton
Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae.
Thallus
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems.
Cellulose
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.
Holdfast
A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself.
Sessile colony
A colony that uses holdfasts to anchor itself to an object.
Extracellular digestion
Digestion that takes place outside of the cell.
Mycelium
The part of the fungus responsible for extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food.
Hypha
A filament of fungal cells.
Rhizoid hypha
A hypha that is imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows.
Aerial hypha
A hypha that is not imbedded in the material upon which the fungus grows.
Sporophore
Specialized aerial hypha that produces spores.
Stolon
An aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments.
Haustorium
A hypha of a parasitic fungus that enters the host's cells, absorbing nutrition directly from the cytoplasm.
Chitin
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
Membrane
A thin covering of tissue.
Fermentation
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.
Zygospore
A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering.
Zygote
The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring.
Antibiotic
A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms.
Atoms
The basic building blocks of matter.
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Model
An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen.
Element
A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.
Molecules
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together.
Physical change
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.
Chemical change
A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance.
Phase
One of the three forms--solid, liquid, or gas--which every substance is capable of attaining.
Diffusion
The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Concentration
A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent.
Semipermeable membrane
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.
Osmosis
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration.
Catalyst
A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process.
Organic Molecule
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous.
Biosynthesis
The process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones.
Isomers
Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula.
Monosaccharides
Simple carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms.
Disaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides.
Dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water.
Hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water.
Hydrophobic
Lacking any affinity to water.
Saturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms.
Unsaturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
Peptide bond
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.
Hydrogen bond
A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules.
Absorption
The transport of dissolved substances into cells.
Digestion
The breakdown of absorbed substances.
REspiration
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy.
Excretion
The removal of soluble waste materials.
Egestion
The removal of nonsoluble waste materials.
Secretion
The release of biosynthesized substances.
Homeostasis
Maintaining the status quo.
Reproduction
Producing more cells.
Cytology
The study of cells.
Middle lamella
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells.
Cell Wall
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.
Plasma membrane
The semipermeable membrane between the contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings.
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
Ions
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons.
Cytoplasmic streaming
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
Mitochondria
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
Lysosome
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids.
Ribosomes
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible fore protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic reticulum
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell.
Rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes.
Smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes.
Leucoplasts
Organelles that store starches or oils.
Chromoplasts
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis.
Central vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes.
Waste vacuoles
Vacuoles that contain the wast products of digestion.
Phagocytosis
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells.
Phagocytic vacuole
A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs.
Pinocytic vesicle
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.
Secretion vesicle
Vesicle that holds secretion products so that the can be transported to the plasma membrane and released.
Golgi bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.
Microtubules
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure.
Nuclear membrane
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement.
Microfilaments
Fine, threadlike proteins found in a cell's cytoskeleton.
Intermediate filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.
Phospholipid
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group.
Passive transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion.
Active transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy.
Isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in a solution.
Hypertonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Plasmolysis
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water.
Cytolysis
The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure.
Hypotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Activation energy
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going.
Genetics
The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.
Genetic factors
The general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA.
Environmental factors
Those "nonbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices.
Spiritual factors
The factors in a person's life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.
Gene
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein of a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait.
Messenger RNA
The RNA that performs transcription.
Anticodon
A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA.
Codon
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.
Chromosome
DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.
Mitosis
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells.
Interphase
The time interval between cellular reproduction.
Mother cell
A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.
Centromere
The region that joins two sister chromatids.
Karyotype
The figure produced when the chomosomes of species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.
Diploid cell
A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.
Haploid cell
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.
Diploid number (2n)
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Haploid number (n)
the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.
Meiosis
The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n).
Gametes
Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Virus
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.
Antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.
Vaccine
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen.
DNA
Deoxyriboneucleic acid found mainly in the nucleus
replication
double the chromosomes
nucleotides
neuclic acid base pairs
RNA
receives instructions from DNA
Transcription
process of forming a neucleic acid using a template
Translation
uses the codons in mRNA to make a specific amino acid
proteins
monomers of amino acid chains
mitosis, meiosis
body cell reproduction and sex cell reproduction
sexual reproduction
2 parents male and female
asexual reproduction
1 parent
genes
segment of dna that codes for a specific trait
Chromosomes
made up of DNA and proteins
Endocrine system
composed of glands that secrete different types of hormone that affect almost every cell, organ and function of your body. It is essential in regulating growth and development, metabolism, as well as reproductive processes and mood.
Pituitary
at the base of the brain; stimulates growth and controls functions of other glands
thyroid
below the voice box; regulates body metabolism and causes storage of calcium in bones
parathyroid
in the neck; controls the calcium levels in your body, and normals the bone growth
thymus
in front of the heart; enables the body to produce certain antibodies
adrenal
on top of the kidneys; prepares the body for action, controls the heart rate and breathing in times of emergency.
pancreas
between the kidneys; regulates the blood sugar levels
testes
lower abdomen; androgen and testosterone; control maturation and male characteristics
ovaries
lower abdomen; estrogen and progesterone; influence female traits and support reproductive function.
homeostasis
state reaches when each part of the body functions in equilibrium with other parts.
semen
the ejaculated fluid containing sperm cells and secretions from the seminal vesicle, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland.
sperm
shorter term for spermatozoon; male gamete
egg cell
also called ovum; female gamete
embryo
an organism in its early stages of development, especially before it has reaches a distinctively recognizable form.
fertilization
a process that occurs when the sperm and egg combine to produce an embryo
radiometric dating
a method used to determine the age of rocks using the decay of radioactive isotopes present in rocks.
carbon dating
used to tell the age of organic materials.
homologous structure
perform different functions in the species living in the different environment, or it may gave the same origin but different functions
analogous structure
have similar functions but different origin
divergent evolution
splitting of an ancestral population into two or more subpopulations that are geographically isolated from one another.
convergent evolution
analogous structure of unrelated organisms from different ancestors develop similar function such as butterfly wings and bird wings.
convergence
is an increase similarities among species derived from different ancestors as a result of similar adaptation to similar environment.
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
first evolutionist to believe that organisms change over time. Who developed three theories: the theory of need, the theory of use and disuse, the theory of acquired characteristics.
Theory of Need
states that organisms change in response to their environment
Theory of Use and Disuse
organs not in use will disappear while organs in use will develop.
Variation
differences in traits of organisms in a population
Theory of Evolution
states that evolutionary change comes through the production of variation in each generation and differential survival of individuals with different combinations of these variable characters.
amino acids
the building blocks of protein
anticodon
the complement of mRNA; triplet code on the tRNA
chromosomal mutations
changes in the chromosomes where parts of the chromosomes are broken and lost during mitosis
codon
each set of three nitrogenous bases in mRNA representing an amino acid or start/stop signal
genetic code
set of rules that specify to the codons in DNA or RNA that corresponds to the amino acids in proteins
nitrogenous base
is a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen. In DNA, Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
mutation
any change in the DNA sequence
mRNA
messenger RNA, brings information from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm
rRNA
ribosomal rna, hold tightly to the mRNA and use its information to assemble amino acids
tRNA
transfer RNA, a type of RNA that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized in the ribosomes.
Recombinant DNA
A form of DNA produced by combining two genetic material from two or more different sources by means of genetic engineering
Transcription
process of copying DNA sequence into RNA
Translation
process of converting information in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein
accessory pigments
energy absorbing plant pigments other than chlorophyll
metabolism
all chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism.
systolic
Blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles.
Contraction of the heart
diastolic
occurs when the ventricles are relaxed; the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery
blood pressure
Reflects the force the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries during contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of the heart.
function of the blood
Transportation materials to and from cells
Transports nutrients, carries O2, waste products, hormones to their target cells, regulates body temperature, protects against bacteria and viruses
blood components
Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
55% Plasma, 45%-Formed Elements
plasma
Liquid portion of blood
RBC
red blood cell
Erythrocytes
4.5-5 million
red blood cells
Carry oxygen
Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
hemoglobin function
*transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
*carry oxygen and also CO2 back to the lungs
*transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
Red blood cells regulated
1. Oxygen deficiency stimulates Erythropoietin (EPO) production by kidneys
White blood count
*Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
*tests to see what percentage of total white blood cell count is composed of each of the five types of leukocytes
neutrophils
Most abundant white blood cell., The most abundant type of white blood cell. Phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.- WBC
lymphocytes
The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
monocytes
*A type of white blood cell that transforms into macrophages, extends pseudopods, and engulfs huge numbers of microbes over a long period of time
*An agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage.
eosinophils
*What IgE-mediated cell secretes major basic protein and has elevated levels in the blood during asthma and parasitic infections?
*What type of WBC is present in increased numbers during an allergic reaction?
basophils
*When performing a WBC differential, which cell has the large, scattered dark blue granules that are darker than the nucleus?
*A circulating leukocyte that produces histamine.
White Blood Count
What is a marker for an infectious disease?
Status of immune system and ability to fight off infection
Platelet function
They play a key role in retention of blood loss by forming a * plug at the site of tears when connective tissue is exposed. Serotonin is released and smooth muscles contract in the vessel walls.
*Blood clotting
- Cause capillary homeostasis by adhering to the inner surface of a vessel and sticking to each other to create a temp. mechanical plu
Platelet function in hemostasis
- Cause capillary homeostasis by adhering to the inner surface of a vessel and sticking to each other to create a temp. mechanical plug
blood cells made
blood cells and bone marrow
blood type
*a classification of blood that depends on the type of antigen present on the surface of the red blood cell; A, B, AB, or O
*A, B, AB and O. Type O is the universal donor and AB blood is known as the universal recipient.
antigens
*Foreign material that invades the body
*Anything that is foreign to the body and that causes an immune response
*What mobilizes the adaptive defenses and provokes an immune response?
antibodies
An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response.
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
antigens in blood
Def A,B in blood
macromolecules are foriegn to host organism and trigger an immune response
antibodies in blood
Passive immunity=
When are HIV antibodies detectable in blood?
blood vessels
Veins
Arteries
blood flow thru blood vessels
tissue perfusion
heart function
*pumps blood throughout the body
*Blood goes into right atrium from superior vena cava through tricuspid to right ventricle to the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary artery to lungs to pulmonary veins to bicuspid to left atrium to mitral valve to left ventricle to aortic valve to aorta
heart structure
4 chambers: 2 atria (right and left) and 2 ventricles (right and left)
heart valves
structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
heart layers
Endocardium ( inner), myocardium ( middle), and epicardium ( outer)
pericardium
Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
blood flow thru heart
Blood enters from superior and inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, rest of body
cardiac cycle
A complete heartbeat consisting of contraction and relaxation of both atria and both ventricles
the complete cycle of events in the heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next
cardiac conduction
a system of specialized muscle tissues that conducts electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat
digestive system
*Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.
*Composed of the alimentary canal and accessory structures. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), large intestine (colon), and anus, Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.
*The system of organs and structures responsible for the digestion of food. The digestive system includes teeth, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small, intestine, large intestine, and colon.
chyme
mixture of enzymes and partially-digested food
digestive process
*The process by which the body breaks down foods and either absorbs or excretes them.
*Ingestion➡digestion➡absorption➡egestion
*Mechanical digestion, denaturation of proteins (by acidity), chemical digestion of proteins (by pepsin), intrinsic factor, delivers chyme to small intestine
saliva
softens food in the mouth making it easier to swallow; helps break down food into simpler forms; secreted by glands in the mouth
GI tract
stomach, colon. intestines, anus rectum
*Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum & anal canal
*mouth -> esophagus -> LES -> stomach -> pyloric sphincter -> SI -> ileocecal sphincter -> LI -> rectum -> anus -> anal sphincter
motility
The capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called
The ability of an organism to move by itself
colon
The large intestine
the largest section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and formation of feces; first, coiled part of large intestine
small intestine structure
The thinner of the two intestine but is much longer. Is highly folded, highly vascular so it can absorb nutrients into the blood
- The small intestine has three main structures— the lining, villi, and microvilli—that absorb most of the nutrients from chyme
gastric juices
Secretions from the stomach lining that contain hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that digests protein.
pancreas secretion
Secretes pancreatic juice to break down carbs, fats, and proteins
Secrete pancreatic juices into the cavity and insulin, and glucagon into blood to regulate blood sugar
Secretin - It is secreted from intestinal cells when acidic food from stomach enters small intestine. Secretin promotes secretion of bicarbonates and water from pancreas.
pancreas function
regulates blood sugar (insulin & glucagon)
Secretes pancreatic juice which breaks down all categories of food
produces digestive enzymes for fats, carbs, and proteins
bile function
digest fat; excrete waste
respiratory system
A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, consisting especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
upper respiratory
consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea
lower respiratory
consists of the bronchial tree and lungs
respiratory tract
The passageway that makes breathing possible.
series of branching tubes that conduct air to and from the respiratory zone for gas exchange
larnyx
upper part of the trachea contains vocal chords - 3 bands of tissue stretched across the opening of trachea
epiglottis
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
trachea
Allows air to pass to and from lungs
Air passageway; has cartilage rings to help keep the air passage open as air rushes in; branches into right/left bronchus
The respiratory process begins when air is inhaled through the nose and into the what?
lung
Main organs of the respiratory system
An organ found in air-breathing vertebrates that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood
bronchi
The passages that branch from the trachea and direct air into the lungs
Airways in the lungs that lead from the trachea to the bronchioles.
alveoli
(singular alveolus.) Tiny sacs, with walls only a single cell layer thick found at the end of the respiratory bronchiole tree. Alveoli are the site of gas exchange in the respiratory system.
Terminal air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of the lungs.
breathing process
+The diaphragm muscle drops and creates a vacuum; Air rushes into the lungs; The diaphragm muscle contracts and pushes the air out
*inhale through mouth or nose, are is filtered by cilia and mucus in nose, then the air goes to the pharynx, past the epiglottis, and through your larynx and trachea, at the base of the trachea are two tubes called bronchi which branch off into smaller air tubes called bronchioles, then the air reaches tiny sacs called alveoli where gas exchange occurs
*Oxygen goes to the lungs , has a close contact to blood absorbs it and carries it to all body parts. Blood gives up CO2 which is from lungs to air breathed out
*- active process that allows the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract, allowing lungs to expand (diaphragm goes down
*Pharynx > Larynx (voice box) > Trachea (windpipe) > Bronchi > Bronchioles > Alveoli
oxegen transported in blood
...
carbon dioxide transported in blood
*Carbon dioxide is released from the mitochondri
*diffuses into blood, then to the capillaries, then to the alveoli in the lungs, and exhaled into the atmosphere
*diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveol
Process that moves CO2 from tissues to lungs in 3 forms: bicarbonate, bound to hemoglobin; as carbaminohemoglobin & as dissolved CO2
Nervous system
Brain, nerve cells, spinal cord
*the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
*The bodily system that in vertebrates is made up of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor organs and that receives and interprets stimuli and transmits impulses to the effector organs.
graded potential
shift in electrical charge in a tiny area of the neuron (temporary); transmits a long cell membranes leaving neuron and polarized state; needs higher than normal threshold of excitation to fire
A local voltage change in a neuron membrane induced by stimulation of a neuron, with strength proportional to the strength of the stimulus and lasting about a millisecond.
action potential
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Fast, moving change across a neurons membrane, also called an impulse.
the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted
neurotransmitter
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
Central nervous system
The brain and spinal cord
A subdivision of the human nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord. Transmits & receives messages to & from the PNS
Peripheral nervous system PNS
peripheral nervous system
*sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
*All parts of the nervous system, excluding the brain and spinal cord, that relay information between the CNS and other parts of body
neuron cells
role of this type of cell is already determined and is not dictated by neighboring cells.
communicate w/ send signals to other neurons and muscles in the body
What is the nervous system composed of?
myelinated
Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are
glia cells that wrap around the axon insulating it. conduct AP more rapidly bc less current lost to extracellular environment
schwann cells
Type of glia in the PNS, Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
Central Nervous system protected
Brain and spinal cord
brain
The mass of nerve tissue that is the main control center of the nervous system
cerebrum
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
Largest part of the brain
Largest part of the brain; coordinates thought, reasoning, movement, and memory, includes the cerebral cortex and the white matter beneath it.
brain stem
Connection to spinal cord. Filters information flow between peripheral nervous system and the rest of the brain.
the central trunk of the mammalian brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, and continuing downward to form the spinal cord.
cerebelleum
motor control
refines skeletal muscle contractions, role in cognition, language, problem solving, activity occurs subconsciously, composed like cerebrum, grey matter white matter (arbor vitae) grey islands.
diencephalon
thalamus and hypothalamus
A portion of the embryonic forebrain that becomes the thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland, and pineal gland.
cerebrum structure
consisting of 2 hemispheres and olfactory lobes
thought and intelligence and memory
breathing phases
inspiration and expiration
breathing process
*Respiration is the chemical process in which cells exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide to obtain energy, Air is breathed in and diffusion occurs and carbon dioxide is breathed out
*Breathing is controlled by muscles.
*[H+] and [CO2] are too high, medulla oblongata is stimulated > sends impulse to diaphragm and intercostal muscles > diaphragm contracts > ribs move up and out > diaphragm moves down > air rushes in > vice versa for exhalation
• controlled by medula oblongata
*inhale through mouth or nose, are is filtered by cilia and mucus in nose, then the air goes to the pharynx, past the epiglottis, and through your larynx and trachea, at the base of the trachea are two tubes called bronchi which branch off into smaller air tubes called bronchioles, then the air reaches tiny sacs called alveoli where gas exchange occurs
pleural cavity
*The space between the two moist membranes that separate the lungs from the thorax (chest cavity). Filled with lubricating fluid.
*airtight space between fold of the pleural membranes; contains watery lubricating fluid that prevents friction between the membranes when they rub together during respiration
PATHOGEN
MICROORGANISM THAT CAUSES ILLNESS OR DISEASE
ANTIBODY
PRODUCED BY WBC WHEN IMMUNE SYSTEM DETECTS A PARTICULAR PATHOGEN
BACTERIA
Bacteria are living cells and can multiply rapidly. Once inside the body, they release poisons or toxins that make us feel ill.
BACTERIA GET IN BETWEEN CELLS
VIRUSES
Viruses can only reproduce inside host cells, and they damage the cell when they do this
VIRUSES GET INTO CELL
DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES
influenza - flu, colds, Measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, AIDS
DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA
food poisoning, Cholera, typhoid, whooping cough,
gonorrhoea - a sexually transmitted disease
WHAT ARE BODY'S DEFENCE MECHANISMS?
SKIN, STOMACH ACID, EYELASHES, TEARS, COUGH
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
White blood cells can ingest and destroy pathogens. They can produce antibodies to destroy pathogens
VACCINES
ARE SMALL AMOUNTS OF DEAD / WEAKENED PATHOGENS
MMR
MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA
EPIDEMIC
WIDESPREAD OUTBREAK OF AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE WITHIN A COUNTRY
PANDEMIC
A DISEASE THAT IS SPREAD RAPIDLY ACROSS MANY COUNTRIES
SYMPTOMS OF AN INFECTION
PAIN, FEVER, RASH, NAUSEA, HEADACHE, COUGHING
ANOMALY
SOMETHING THAT DEVIATES FROM NORMAL OR EXPECTED
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
WHAT YOU MEASURE- ON Y AXIS
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
WHAT YOU CHOOSE VALUES FOR- ON Y AXIS
CONTROL VARIABLE
VARIABLES THAT REMAIN CONSTANT OR UNCHANGED
WHITE BLOOD CELLS CAN
-ingest pathogens and destroy them
-produce antibodies to destroy pathogens
-produce antitoxins that neutralise the toxins released by pathogens
white blood cells do not eat the pathogens - they ingest them
DECAY
The breakdown of dead plant and animal material by fungi, bacteria and other organisms. Requires WOW
W-warmth
O-oxygen
W- water
RELAY NEURONES
Neurones that carry information from a sensory nerve cell to a motor nerve cell
NEUROTRANSMITTER
...
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) consists of
- the brain and spinal cord
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) consists of
- nerve cells that carry information to or from the CNS. Includes spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
RECEPTORS
- can detect a change in the environment (stimulus) and produce electrical impulses in response. Sense organs contain groups of receptors that respond to specific stimuli.
EFFECTORS
-produces a response e.g.muscle contracts to move hand away from stimulus or gland squeezes and releases hormone into blood.
SYNAPSE
Where two neurones meet, there is a tiny gap called a synapse. Signals cross this gap using chemicals released by a neurone. The chemical diffuses across the gap makes the next neurone transmit an electrical signal.
REFLEX
-a way for the body to automatically and rapidly respond to a stimulus to minimise any further damage to the body.

stimulus → receptor → sensory neurone → relay neurone → motor neurone → effector → response
SENSORY NEURONE
A sensory neurone sends impulses (from a sensory receptor) to a relay neurone in the spinal cord/CNS.
RELAY NEURONE
-carry messages from one part of the CNS to another
MOTOR NEURONE
A motor neurone sends impulses from the spinal cord/CNS to effector (muscle of gland).
cancer
a growth defect in cells , a breakdown of the mechanism that controls cell division. Ex. his ___ was caused by smoking.
development
the change in shape or organisms over time. Ex. a child's ________ is very fast.
ecology
the branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with one another and with nonliving parts of their environment
gene
sections of chromosomes made of DNA that code for traits. The basic unit of heredity.
genome
the complete genetic material contained in an individual.
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring. Ex. scientists know that _____ can increase chances for certain diseases.
HIV
a virus that attacks and destroys the human immune system.
interdependence
organisms in a biological community live and interact with other organisms.
mutation
a change in the DNA of a gene.
natural selection
process in which organisms with favorable genes are more likely to survive to reproduce. Ex. the idea of ____ ______ was first presented by Charles Darwin.
organism
any living thing; something that meets all criteria of life. Ex. so far, we have not found proof of any living ________ on another planet.
pH
a relative measure of the hydrogen ion concentration within a solution; Latin for "probably hydrogens".
absorption
process by which substances are taken into the cell or an organism.
assimilation
incorporation of materials into the body of an organism.
circulation
process by which materials are distributed (moved) throughout the organism.
differentiation
process by which cells become specialized for specific functions.
digestion
the breakdown of complex food materials into forms the organism can use. Ex. Going to sleep after eating can be bad for ____.
egestion
elimination of indigestible waste.
excretion
removal of metabolic waste.
ingestion
taking in food from the environment.
regulation
process by which organisms maintain homeostasis, a stable internal environment.
reproduction
process by which organisms produce new organisms of their own kind
respiration
release of chemical energy from certain nutrients.
synthesis
chemical combination of simple substances to form complex substances.
DNA
nucleic acid polymer that stores genetic information.
equilibrium
the state of both sides are balanced
evolution
the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
theory
a system of ideas that explains many related observations and is supported by a large body of evidence acquired through scientific investigation
species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring. Ex. there are thousands of different ______ of butterflies.
matter
the material that everything in the universe is made of, including solids, liquids, and gases
element
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions. Ex. carbon is an essential ________ of life.
compound
a substance consisting of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio. Ex. water is the most common _______ on Earth.
bacteria
a very small living things. Ex. Although some cause illness or disease, many ______ are harmless.
virus
a very small living thing that causes infectious illnesses. Ex. HIV is the _____ that causes AIDS.
algae
a very simple plant without stems or leaves that grows in or near water.
fungi
simple type of plant that has no leaves or flowers and that grows on plants or other surfaces. Ex. mushrooms are a _____.
oxygen
a gas that has no color or smell, is present in air, and is necessary for most animals and plants to live. Ex. the chemical symbol for _____ is O.

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