205 terms

CMS 334K Test 3

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What is the way to give the floor to another person using eye gaze?
Look at them (since you typically look away while speaking)
We take on behaviors that go with gender roles (female CEOs act masculine, male babysitters act feminine)
Social role theory
When you say one thing, but your NVs convey another
Tension leakage
What 4 things had no effect on dominance?
Gaze, smiling, gestures, rate
Dialect
Vocabulary
What acted as positive reinforcers in the Forbes & Jackson Study - Job Interviews?
Immediacy behaviors
What gender shows more dominance when power is not designated? (VDR)
M
What gender is better in crowds?
F
What gender is expected to be friendly?
F
Does the Middle E use a lot or little eye contact?
A lot
How can you close the comm channel with eye gaze?
Ex?
Avert gaze
Elevator
How can you open the comm channel with eye gaze?
Mutual eye gaze
How does gaze reflect cognitive activity?
If we aren't looking, we are trying to formulate what we want to say and block out distractions
What emotion does looking to the side indicate?
Guilt
What emotion does looking down indicate?
Sad, bored
What emotion does looking out of the corner of the eye indicate?
Flirting
What emotion does looking up indicate?
Thoughtful, interested
Percent of time gazing while speaking / percent of time gazing while listening
Visual dominance ratio
What is the visual dominance ratio?
Percent of time gazing while speaking / percent of time gazing while listening
Why do males tend to have a higher visual dominance ratio?
Females spend more time gazing
In any relationship, people will negotiate and try to balance out their own behavioral acts (approach v. avoidance) to maintain a comfortable level of intimacy; when one person breaks equilibrium, the other will compensate with either reciprocation or avoidance
Intimacy equilibrium model
Amount of eye gaze, proximity, topic, amount of smiling
Intimacy
What is the general rule about reciprocating and compensating nonverbal behavior?
We reciprocate another person's nonverbal behavior when their behavior is perceived as congruent with our expectations and preferences
How does distance influence gaze?
As distance increases, eye gaze increases
Social anxiety, shyness --> (less/more) gaze
Less
Higher intelligence, extroversion --> (less/more) gaze
More
Socially dominant --> (less/more) gaze
More
Aggressively dominant --> what type of gaze?
Looking around
Lower self-esteem --> (less/more) gaze
When do they gaze more?
Less
When performance is criticized
Higher Self-esteem --> (less/more) gaze
More
Open, agreeable --> (less/more) gaze
More
Less gaze --> perceptions of (positive/negative) characteristics
Negative
Are people perceived better when they give more or less gaze?
More
How do we gaze when we are doing a competitive task?
Check in frequently and quickly with eye gaze
How do we gaze when we are doing a cooperation task?
More mutual eye gaze
More pleasant positive topic --> (less/more) eye gaze
More
Feeling good --> (less/more) eye gaze
More
Negative emotion --> (less/more) eye gaze
Less
Negative topic --> (less/more) eye gaze
Less
Is eye contact perceived as respectful in...
US?
Yes
Is eye contact perceived as respectful in...
Asia?
No
Is eye contact perceived as respectful in...
Africa?
No
Do Eastern cultures look away or straight on?
Away
Do Western cultures look away or straight on?
Straight on
More physical arousal --> (less/more) pupil dilation
More
Is it supported that pupil dilation is correlated to feeling positively about something/constrict when we feel negative about something?
No
More light --> pupil (dilation/constriction)
Constriction
More drugs --> pupil (dilation/constriction)
Dilation
More physical arousal --> pupil (dilation/constriction)
Dilation
Ritual of initial glance and then gaze aversion - this acknowledges another's presences, but the aversion assures that the other is not an object of curiosity or attention
Civil inattention
Why is civil inattention more likely to occur in the elevator context (than pedestrians crossing on a street)?
Close proximity --> implied intimacy of a behavior is forced to increase so one must compensate by gazing less, talking about impersonal topics, etc.
Civil inattention in elevators:
The person who does not glance may be considered (less/more) polite
Why?
More
Since he/she avoids exploration of space in order to convenience the other passengers
What are the 2 key components of civil inattention?
Quick glances, gaze aversion
How does our reliance on verbal content and nonverbal behavior change as we get older?
(young children, older children, adults)
Young children rely more on verbal content, older children show a mixed pattern and adults rely much more on nonverbal qualities
What are the 2 general vocalic behaviors discussed in class?
What are examples of each?
Specific vocalic sounds; vocal segregates
Crying, laughing, groaning; um, ah, like, you know
Vocal characteristics
Specific vocalic sounds
Fillers/filled pauses, not meaningful
Vocal segregates
What can be used for these 3 things: evaluation, reflecting cognitive activity, punctuating/accenting
Silence
What are 2 kinds of unfilled pauses
Pauses and speech latency
The time in between when one person stops talking and the other people starts talking
Speech latency
Are spectrograms useful in identifying speakers by voice?
Why?
They are not very reliable
Two different speakers could have very similar spectrograms depending on the voice sample obtained and the equipment used
Another name for a spectrogram
Voiceprint
A visual picture of a person's speech, a plot of vocal energy in different frequency bands as a function of time
Spectrogram
What makes an attractive voice...
Pitch for females?
Moderate
What makes an attractive voice...
Volume?
Moderate-high
What makes an attractive voice...
Resonance?
Goes along with what for males?
More
Lower pitch
Can we accurately detect emotions of people from another culture?
Yes
What 3 methods do researchers use to eliminate the content of speech to determine the effects of vocal qualities?
Constant content, filtering, splicing
What method that researchers use to eliminate the content of speech to determine the effects of vocal qualities?
Taking out actual words to hear vocal qualities
Filtering
What method that researchers use to eliminate the content of speech to determine the effects of vocal qualities?
Mixing up recording to hear vocal qualities
Splicing
What method that researchers use to eliminate the content of speech to determine the effects of vocal qualities?
Meaningless content
Constant content
What 4 emotions are easier to communicate and recognize through the voice?
Sadness, anger, happiness, fear
What 2 vocalic qualities tend to be influential in judgments of emotional expressions?
Tempo and pitch
Does vocal variety increase audience comprehension?
Yes
What is the normal speaking rate?
125-190 words per minute
Up to how many words per minute can we comprehend per minute?
Between 250-275 words per minute
Persuasion:
(Less/more) pauses
(Slower/faster) rate
Less
Faster
What types of pauses yield these perceptions?
More persuasive, respected, and authoritative
More unfilled pauses
What types of pauses yield these perceptions?
Less genuine and trustworthy
Less unfilled pauses
Silence can mean _____ and is based on _____
Anything, context
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
You as a speaker have the floor and yielding over the floor
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
When you're the speaker
Turn maintaining
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Rising or lowering of pitch
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Slowed tempo
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Drawl on last syllable
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Use of utterances
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Extended unfilled pauses
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Body tension becomes more relaxed
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Gestures come to resting position
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Gazing at other
Turn yielding
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Loudness increases
Turn maintaining
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Upright posture
Turn maintaining
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Increasing number of filled pauses
Turn maintaining
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Maybe lightly touching the listener
Turn maintaining
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
As a listener, someone has the floor, so you do certain behaviors to get the floor
Turn requesting
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Upraised finger
Turn requesting
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Audible inhaling
Turn requesting
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Straightening of posture
Turn requesting
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Preening for speaker role
Turn requesting
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Speeding up speaker with nods and utterances (mmm, yeah)
Turn requesting
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Stutter
Turn requesting
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Simultaneously talk
Turn requesting
Who is the turn denier?
Listener
Who is the turn requester
Listener
Who is the turn yielder?
Speaker
Who is the turn maintainer?
Speaker
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Speaker giving you the floor, but you don't want it
Turn denying
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Relaxed listening pose maintained
Turn denying
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Maintain silence
Turn denying
Which of the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
Repeat last words of speaker
Turn denying
Why might we use NVs when departing?
To offset any negatives with leaving
What is an example of empty reinforcement when a listener wants to depart an interaction?
Rapid head nodding
What are the 4 components/dimensions of impressions as discussed in class?
Credibility, likeability, interpersonal attractiveness, confidence/dominance
What are 2 components of likeability?
Agreeable, friendly
Not out for personal gain
Credibility
Someone you want to be associated with, someone people gravitate toward
Interpersonal attractiveness
Confident/dominant people have vocal _____
Relaxation
Credible, confident, dominant people don't have _____ _____ or nervous habits
Tension leakage
Flirting in bars:
Which gender initially subtly signals by messing with hair/solitary dance/accidental touching?
Females
Flirting in bars:
Women are _____ and show readiness for contact; they use 3 types of eye gaze (room encompassing glance, short darting glance, fixed gaze of at least 3 seconds)
Selectors
Clore study:
Did viewers think the man would find the woman more attractive when she showed "only warm" behaviors or "cold then warm" behaviors to a man?
"Cold then warm"
Clore study:
Did viewers think the man would find the woman more attractive when she showed "only cold" behaviors or "cold then warm" behaviors to a man?
"Only cold"
Clore study:
Why did the viewers think the man would like the woman when she was cold?
They thought the man was responsible for the woman's change in behavior
There is (less/more) NV behavior associated with affection and intimacy in established relationships than new relationships
Less
Mutual influence section has to do with what theory?
EVT
What does Cognitive Valence Theory (CVT) try to explain?
Responses to increased intimacy by partner thru 6 schema
Cognitive Valence Theory (CVT):
If any of the 6 schema are violated, behavior is considered (positive/negative) and _____ occurs
Negative
Compensation
Cognitive Valence Theory (CVT):
If none of the 6 schema are violated, behavior is considered (positive/negative) and _____ occurs
Positive
Reciprocation
Cultural appropriateness, personal predispositions, interpersonal valence/reward, relational appropriateness, situational appropriateness, psychological or physical state
CVT 6 schema
We perceive dominant people to have...
(Less/more) interruptions
(Less/more) smiling
More
Less
We perceive dominant people to have...
(Less/more) interpersonal distance
(Less/more) filled pauses
Less
Less
What 4 things don't have an effect on a person's dominance?
Gaze, smiling, gestures, rate
You are more persuasive if...
(Less/more) proximity
_____ touch
Less
Light
You are more persuasive if...
(Less/more) gaze
(Slower/faster) rate
More
Faster
What 2 major conclusions were discussed in relation to nonverbal behavior and persuasion?
NVs have at least as strong of an impact on persuasion as verbals
Positive expectancy violations produce more persuasion than conformity to expectations
Liars use less _____ and are less _____
Detail, plausible
Liars:
(Less/more) spontaneous corrections
(Less/more) likely to admit that they can't admit something
Less
Less
How accurate are we in detecting lies? (%)
50-60%
What does social information processing theory suggest?
We adapt to a lack of cues
We adapt to a lack of cues in CMC
Social information processing theory
Forming relationships faster online with no history
Hyperpersonal comm
What 4 personality traits can we detect from SNS (social networking sites)?
Extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, narcissism
What 4 relational traits can we detect from SNS (social networking sites)?
Relational partners' satisfaction and commitment
Friends' positive comments on SNS about you increase your _____ and _____ attractiveness (and _____ attractiveness for females)
Social, task, physical
Did judgments of SNS side with the owner or friends more on extraversion?
Owner
Did judgments of SNS side with the owner or friends more on attractiveness?
Friends
SNS:
Owner: attractive, friend: attractive = ?
Attractive
SNS:
Owner: attractive, friend: unattractive = ?
Least attractive
SNS:
Owner: unattractive, friend: attractive = ?
Most attractive
SNS:
Owner: unattractive, friend: unattractive = ?
Slightly attractive
SNS:
Owner: introverted, friend: introverted = ?
Introverted
SNS:
Owner: extraverted, friend: extraverted = ?
Extraverted
SNS:
Owner: introverted, friend: extraverted = ?
Slightly more extraverted
SNS:
Owner: extraverted, friend: introverted = ?
Even more extraverted
What did Yee et al. (2008) find out about proxemics and eye contact in the virtual world?
The closer the avatars got, the less eye gaze there would be, however, the more two avatars were talking, the more likely they were to be looking at each other
Critiques how our societal structure is. If male, you have more power- if female, you have less power (theory for sex differences)
Power hypothesis
Boys and girls grow up in different cultures
When boys play together its about establishing hierarchy/power/competition
When girls play together its more collaborative/cooperative (theory for sex differences)
Social cultural approach
We take on behaviors that are appropriate for the role at hand
We tend to choose roles that go along with our gender
If a man works in a day care center he's going to act nurturing/caring (theory for sex differences)
Social role theory
In general, are the sex differences large?
No
What gender is...
Better at encoding/decoding?
F
What gender is...
Maintain smaller distances?
F
What gender is...
Approached more closely?
F
What gender is...
Give, receive, and reciprocate more touch?
F
What gender is...
More expressive with facial expressions?
F
What gender is...
Smiles more?
F
What gender...
Uses more pronunciation?
F
What gender...
Uses more expansive and relaxed posture?
M
What gender...
Uses more expansive gesturing?
M
What gender...
Uses more expressive gesturing?
F
What gender...
Has a higher volume?
M
What gender...
Has a higher resonance?
M
More dominance:
Gaze (less/more) while speaking
More
More dominance:
Gaze (less/more) while listening
Less
What is the sex difference regarding persuasiveness?
Females have to be credible and well-liked, males just have to be credible
What is the common fallacy regarding the effects of advertising?
People deny the effects of advertising on themselves
What subtle message do we get from advertising that makes it so powerful?
Viewer is inadequate
You'll be better if you use this product
Use self-esteem issues to sell products
Which emotional expression may be the biggest turnoff for voters?
Fear/uncertainty
What are the effects when students perceive their teachers as exhibiting immediacy behaviors?
They like the teacher and the course, learn more, determined to stay in college
What general conclusions did Manusov (2008) make in her research on cross-cultural interactions?
Stereotypes were associated with certain behaviors used during the interaction
Axtell's cultural differences regarding nonverbal behaviors:
What did "OK" mean when Nixon used it in France?
Screw you
Axtell's cultural differences regarding nonverbal behaviors:
What did "thumbs up" mean when Australia insulted Nigeria?
Up yours
Axtell's cultural differences regarding nonverbal behaviors:
What did "V for victory peace sign" mean in England?
Up yours
Axtell's cultural differences regarding nonverbal behaviors:
What did "hook 'em" mean in Italy?
Your spouse is being unfaithful
How do you know how low to bow in Japan?
Higher rank --> lower bow
What does an American waving goodbye mean in Europe?
No
In Germany, the "OK" hand sign means what?
You *******
What 3 things does namaste mean?
Hello, thank you, I'm sorry
What does the Italian goodbye wave mean to Americans?
Come here
American hand or finger raising to head level
Beckoning
Why is beckoning considered rude in Japan?
All pointing is rude
What does raising your hand (beckoning) mean in Europe?
No
What are you supposed to do in China when you want a refill?
Turn your empty glass upside down
What area of the world is men holding hands considered respect and friendship?
Middle E
Who should no one ever touch unless she touches them first?
The Queen
Reverberation in head cavity
Resonance
Higher pitches have (lower/higher) resonance
Lower
Things that you have to hear the person talk for a span of time in order to make an assessment about, stylistic
Extralinguistic features
Person with (lower/higher) VDR is perceived as more dominant
Higher
Behaviors that indicate physical and psychological closeness, approachability, interest, responsiveness, and interpersonal warmth
Immediacy
Although all of the following are behaviors that we perceive as indicating dominance, which is actually exhibited by those who have more power?
More gaze, more smiling, greater facial expressiveness, faster rate
Greater facial expressiveness
What is the comm goal of CVT?
Creating intimacy
Do NV or verbals play a larger role in persuasion?
NVs
In Second Life (Yee et al. reading), when avatars got physically close to each other did they use more or less gaze?
Less
What are the 4 extralinguistic features?
Rate, rhythm, duration, accent
Behavior associated with establishing initial relationships
Immediacy