History 102-Buller Final

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Containment (cold war) 1947
the U.S. state policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad. This policy was a response to a series of moves made by the S.U. to enlarge communism
Truman Doctrine (cold war) 1947
Truman never expected to be president and when he was chosen to replace Roosevelt he was forced to decide foreign policy which he had previously played virtually no role. He knew the SU was not to be trusted and made an immediate decision in 1947 to contain communism home and abroad. Because Britain's economy was shattered by the war, they could no longer afford its traditional role and they had no choice but to end military and financial aid to two crucial governments- Greece, a monarchy threatened by communist-led rebellion, and Turkey, from which the soviets were demanding joint control of the straits linking the black sea and the mediterranean. Britain asked the US to fill the vacuum. Truman believe as a leader of the "free world" it was his job to support and defend "freedom-loving peoples'. Truman succeeded in persuading both democrats and republicans in congress to support his policy and congress gave him $400 million to aid to the governments of Greece and Turkey
The Marshall Plan (cold war) 1947
George C. Marshall was the secretary of state in 1947. He pledged the US to contribute billions of dollars to finance the economic recovery of Europe. The Marshall Plan offered a positive vision to go along with containment. It aimed to combat the idea that capitalism was in decline and communism the wave of the future. It defined the threat of economic and political instability and not as much as Soviet military power because he believed these to be the breeding grounds for communism. In effect, the Marshall Plan envisioned a New Deal for Europe, an extension to that of Roosevelt's wartime Four Freedoms. The aim was for a 'higher standard of living for the entire nation; maximum employment for workers and farmers; greater production". The Marshall Plan proved to be one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history.
Berlin Blockade (cold war) 1948
In June 1948, the US, Britain, and France introduced a separate currency in their zones, an event leading to the creation of a new West German government that would be aligned with them in the Cold War. In response, Soviets cut off road and rail traffic from American, British, and French zones of occupied Germany to Berlin. in 1949 Stalin lifted the blockade and the Truman administration won a major victory. Now it was East and West Germany, each allied with a side in the Cold War
Korean War (cold war) 1950
American postwar policy focused on Europe, however it was in Asia that the Cold War suddenly turned hot. In ww11, Korea had been divided into soviet and american zones. This soon led to two government, communist North Korea, and anticommunist South Korea. In 1950, North Korea invaded South in hopes of reunifying the country under communist control. Truman viewed Korea as a clear test of policy of containment so he persuaded the United Nations Security Council to authorize the use of force to repel the invasion. American troops did the bulk of the fighting and with a daring counterattack, were able to push the invaders northward. Truman now hoped to unite Korea under a pro-American government. However, when the UN forces neared the Chinese Border, hundred of thousands of Chinese troops intervened, driving them back in bloody fighting. Gen. MacArthur demanded the right to push north again and possibly invade China. Truman however, feared an all-out war on the Asian mainland and refused. The war settled into a stalemate around the thirty-eighth parallel, the original boundary between the two Koreas
Nato (cold war) 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a military alliance of European and North American democracies founded after World War II to strengthen international ties between member states—especially the United States and Europe—and to serve as a counter-balance to the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
The 'Fair Deal' (cold war)
Truman's program focused on improving the social safety net and raising the standard of living of ordinary Americans. He called on congress to increase min wage, enact a program of national health insurance, and expand public housing, Social Security, and aid to education.
McCarthyism (cold war) 1950
Joseph R. McCarthy announced that he had a list of 205 communists working for the State Department. The charge was preposterous, and the numbers constantly changed, and McCarthy never identified a single person guilty of genuine disloyalty. Although many republicans initially supported his rampage as a weapon against the Truman administration, McCarthy became an embarrassment to the party.
Taft Hartley Act (cold war) 1947
is a United States federal law that restricts the activities and power of labor unions. This was a time to fight for human rights and this act was a positive step forward
SNCC (CRM) 1960
(student nonviolent coordinating committee) they were dedicated to replace the culture of segregation with a 'beloved community' of racial justice and to empowering ordinary blacks to take control of the decisions that affected their lives. They participated in sit-ins and freedom rides. Freedom rides were integrated groups who traveled by bus into the deep South to test compliance with court orders banning segregation on interstate buses and trains.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRM)
When Johnson became president, nobody expected that he would make a passage of civil rights legislation his first order of business or that he would come to identify himself with the black movement more passionately than any previous president. However Johnson called on Congress to enact the civil rights bill just 5 days after the assignation of kennedy. The Civil Rights Act prohibited racial discrimination in employment, institutions like hospitals and schools, and privately owned public accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, and schools, and theaters.
Voting Rights of 1965 (CRM)
King launched a voting rights campaign in Alabama, a city where only 355 of 15,000 blacks were allowed to register to vote. King attempted to lead a march from Selma to the state capital, however when the marchers reached the bridge, state police assaulted them with cattle prods, whips, and tear gas. Selma was a milestone in "man's unending search for freedom", and Johnson asked congress to enact a law securing the right to vote. Black southerners finally regained the suffrage that had been stripped from them at the turn of the twentieth century.
Hart Cellar Act of 1965 (CRM)
The act abandoned the national-origins quota system of immigration, which had excluded Asians and severely restricted southern and eastern Europeans. The law established new, racially neutral criteria for immigration, notably family reunification and possession of skills in demand in the US. However because of the growing hostility in the Southwest to Mexican immigration, the law established the first limit, 120,000, on newcomers from the Western Hemisphere. This created the term 'illegal aliens' from the Americas. This new law had many unexpected results. For example, no one anticipated that the new quotas not only would lead to an explosive rise in immigration but also would spark a dramatic shift in which newcomers from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia came to outnumber those from Europe.
Malcolm X and the "Black Power" (CRM)
Malcolm X was the intellectual father of "Black Power". The term 'Black Power' was used by the SNCC leader in a civil rights march in Mississippi. Black power immediately became a rallying cry for those bitter over the federal governments failure to stop violence against civil rights workers, white attempts to determine movement strategy, and the CRM failure to have any impact on the economic problems of black ghettos. They reflected a new sense of racial pride and a rejection of white norms. New groups were formed and one of the most prominent was the Black Panther Party. They became notorious for advocating armed self-defense in response to police brutality.
The New Left (CRM) 1960s
The new left was made up college students and was the 'silent generation'. Large numbers of children of affluence began to reject the values and institutions of their society. What made the new left was its rejection of the intellectual and political categories that had shaped radicalism and liberalism for most of the twentieth century. Instead of economic equality and social citizenship, the New Left spoke of loneliness, isolation, and alienation, of powerlessness in the face of bureaucratic institutions and a hunger for authenticity that affluence could not provide. But the New Left's greatest inspiration was the black freedom movement. More than any other event, the sit-ins catalyzed white student activism. The black movement and the new left shared basic assumptions, that the evils to be corrected were deeply embedded in social institutions and that only direct confrontation could persuade Americans of the urgency of far-reaching change.
Stonewall Bar Riots (CRM) 1960s
If one movement marked the advent of 'gay liberation' it was the Stonewall Bar Riots, a gathering place for homosexuals. Rather than bowing to police harassment, as in the past, gays fought back. Five days of rioting followed, and a militant movement was born. Gay men and lesbians stepped out of the 'closet' to insist that sexual orientation is a matter of rights, power, and identity. Within months, 'gay pride' marches were being held in numerous cities.
Red Power (CRM) 1960s
The 1960s also witnessed an upsurge of Indian militancy. The Truman and Eisenhower administrations had sought to dismantle the reservation system and integrate Indians into the American mainstream. They demanded not simply economic aid but self-determination, like the emerging nations of the Third World. Many Indian tribes would win greater control over education and economic development on the reservations.
YAF (CRM) 1960s
Young Americans for Freedom, conservative students emerges as a force in politics. YAF aimed initially to take control of the Republican Party from leaders who had made their peace with the New Deal and seemed willing to coexist with communism.
The Great Society (CRM)
Johnson outlined the most sweeping proposal for governmental action to promote the general welfare since the New Deal. Johnson initiatives, known as the Great Society, provided health services to the poor and elderly in the new Medicaid and Medicare programs and poured federal funds into education and urban development. Unlike the New Deal, the Great Society was a response to prosperity, not depression. Johnson and democratic liberals believed that economic growth made it possible to fund ambitious new government programs and to improve the quality of life. However the centerpiece was the crusade to eradicate poverty.
Women's liberation (CRM) 1960's
Before, educated women were trapped in a world that view marriage and motherhood as their primary goals. In 1963, congress passed the Equal Pay Act, barring sex discrimination among holders of the same jobs. However, by the late 1960's many women throughout the country were establishing 'consciousness raising' groups to discuss the sources of their discontent. The women's liberation movement inspired a major expansion of the idea of freedom by insisting that it should be applied to the most intimate reals of life.
AFDC (Glob) 1996
President Clinton signed into law a Republican Bill that abolished the program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children, commonly known as welfare. At the time AFDC assisted 14 million individuals, 9 million of them children. Thanks to the new eligibility requirements imposed by the states and the economic boom of the late 1990's, welfare rolls plummeted. But the number of children living in poverty remained the same. He succeeded in one of his primary goals, welfare, a hotly contested issue for twenty years or more, had disappeared from political debate.
The Balkans Crisis (Glob)
This was the most complex foreign policy of the Clinton years. Yugoslavia was a multiethnic state in southeastern Europe. The communist government that had ruled Yugoslavia since the 1940s collapsed in 1989. Within a few years, the countries six provinces dissolved into five new states. Ethnic conflict plagued several of these new nations. 'Ethnic Cleansing" a terrible new term meaning the forcible explosion from an area of a particular ethnic group. By the end of 1993, more than 100,000 Bosnians, nearly all of them civilians, had perished. With the cold war over, protection of human rights in the Balkans gave NATO a new purpose, NATO launched air strikes against Bosnian Serb forces, with american planes contributing. UN troops, including 20,000 americans, arrived as peacekeepers. In 1998, ethnic cleansing again surfaced, this time by Yugoslavian troops and local Serbs against the Albanian population of Kosovo
Hurricane Katrina (Glob) 2005
Because of New Orleans being situated below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, it has always been vulnerable to flooding. When the storm it, the levees broke, and nearly the entire city was flooded. The natural disaster quickly became a man made one, the mayor of New Orleans had been slow to order an evacuation, fearing this would damage the city's tourist trade. When he finally instructed residents to leave, he neglected to provide for the thousands who did not own automobiles and were too poor to find other means of transportation. In 2002, the department of Homeland Security had been created, which is now responsible for disaster planning and relief within the US
Globalization (Glob)
The internationalization of commerce and culture and the reshuffling of the world's people had been going on since the explorations of the fifteenth century. A new era in human history had opened, with a borderless economy and a 'global civilization' that would soon replace traditional cultures.
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