23 terms

Chapter 2 Early River Valley Civilizations

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Fertile Crescent
An arc of rich farmland within a dry region of Southwest Asia between the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea.
Mesopotamia
Means "land between the rivers" in Greek.
City-State
Form of government with its own rulers comprised of a city and its surrounding area.
Dynasty
A series of rulers from a single family.
Cultural Diffusion
Process in which a new idea or a product spreads from one culture to another.
Five Characteristics of a Civilization
1. Advanced cities, 2. Specialized workers, 3. Complex institutions, 4. Record keeping, 5. Improved technology.
Polytheism
Belief in more than one god.
Empire
Brings together several peoples, nations, or previously independent states under the control of one ruler.
Hammurabi
Ruler of Babylonian Empire from 1792-1750 B.C. whose legacy is his code of laws he put together.
Pharaohs
Egyptian god-kings
Theocracy
Type of government in which rule is based on religious authority.
Mummification
Preservation of the royal and elite Egyptians' bodies by embalming and drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying.
Hieroglyphics
A form of Egyptian writing that was more flexible than pictographs.
Papyrus
Egyptian writing surface that replaced writing on stone and clay as in Mesopotamia.
Two Rivers from Mesopotamia
Tigris & Euphrates
Two Main Rivers of Indian Subcontinent
Indus & Ganges
Monsoons
Seasonal winds that dominate India's climate.
Harappan civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
Loess
Yellowish silt (fertile soil) that overflows the Yellow River in China
Oracle bones
Animal bones and tortoise shells on which priests had scratched questions for the gods to answer.
Mandate of Heaven
Divine approval for a just ruler.
Dynastic cycle
The pattern of rise, decline and replacement of dynasties.
Feudalism (used by Zhou Dynasty)
Political system in which nobles or lords are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king. In return, the nobles owe loyalty and military service to the king and protection to the people who live on their estates.
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