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True or False, The larynx and trachea are part of the upper airway of the respiratory system


True or False, Infants born prematurely may develop infant respiratory distress syndrome because their production of surfactant is insufficient.


True or False, The right mainstem bronchus is straighter that the left.


Widespread atelectasis, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and fibrosis are characteristic of

acute respiratory distress syndrome

Which is indicative of a left tension pneumothorax

Absent breath sounds on the left

Emphysema results from destruction of alveolar walls and capillaries, which is due to

release of proteolytic enzymes from immune cells

This change occurs during an acute asthma episode

alveolar collapse.

A collection of air in the pleural space that develops a positive pressure is called

tension pneumothorax

A structure that participates in diffusion of respiratory gases is the


A child is taken to the emergency department with severe dyspnea. A blood gas reveals the following values: pH = 7.45; PaCO2 = 35; HCO3- = 23; PaO2 = 63; SaO2 = 90%. What is the most appropriate initial therapy?

Administer oxygen.

The characteristic x-ray findings in tuberculosis include

Ghon tubercles

The classic features of acute respiratory distress syndrome include

large pulmonary shunt fraction

Surfactant is a phospholipid that reduces

alveolar surface tension.

After evaluation a child's asthma is characterized as "extrinsic." This means that the asthma is

associated with specific allergic triggers

True or False, Patients with emphysema should not be given supplemental oxygen.


True or False, A reduced peak expiratory flow rate is a common finding in restrictive disorders.


What is true about oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve

The curve shifts to the right with hypercarbia (increased CO2).

Most of the carbon dioxide in blood is transported

as bicarbonate

What are peripheral chemoreceptors primarily responsible for

the hypoxic drive to breathe.

Intrapulmonary shunting refers to

perfusion without ventilation

This clinical manifestation is UNLIKELY present in apatient with tuberculosis infection


Extrinsic asthma is associated with

IgE-mediated airway inflammation

Copious, foul-smelling respiratory secretions are generally associated with


True or False, Chronic bronchitis occurs most commonly in association with long-term cigarette smoking.


The pulmonary vascular system responds to

norepinephrine with vasoconstriction.

A condition that results in increased pulmonary vascular resistance is

pulmonary hypoxemia

True or False, Pulmonary artery blood is normally 95% to 100% saturated with oxygen.


Croup is characterized by

a barking cough

The type of ventilation-perfusion imbalance that occurs in areas of atelectasis or consolidation is called

true shunt

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