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29 terms

Patho Topic 6: Respiratory

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True or False, The larynx and trachea are part of the upper airway of the respiratory system
False
True or False, Infants born prematurely may develop infant respiratory distress syndrome because their production of surfactant is insufficient.
True
True or False, The right mainstem bronchus is straighter that the left.
False
Widespread atelectasis, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and fibrosis are characteristic of
acute respiratory distress syndrome
Which is indicative of a left tension pneumothorax
Absent breath sounds on the left
Emphysema results from destruction of alveolar walls and capillaries, which is due to
release of proteolytic enzymes from immune cells
This change occurs during an acute asthma episode
alveolar collapse.
A collection of air in the pleural space that develops a positive pressure is called
tension pneumothorax
A structure that participates in diffusion of respiratory gases is the
alveolus
A child is taken to the emergency department with severe dyspnea. A blood gas reveals the following values: pH = 7.45; PaCO2 = 35; HCO3- = 23; PaO2 = 63; SaO2 = 90%. What is the most appropriate initial therapy?
Administer oxygen.
The characteristic x-ray findings in tuberculosis include
Ghon tubercles
The classic features of acute respiratory distress syndrome include
large pulmonary shunt fraction
Surfactant is a phospholipid that reduces
alveolar surface tension.
After evaluation a child's asthma is characterized as "extrinsic." This means that the asthma is
associated with specific allergic triggers
True or False, Patients with emphysema should not be given supplemental oxygen.
False
True or False, A reduced peak expiratory flow rate is a common finding in restrictive disorders.
False
What is true about oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
The curve shifts to the right with hypercarbia (increased CO2).
Most of the carbon dioxide in blood is transported
as bicarbonate
What are peripheral chemoreceptors primarily responsible for
the hypoxic drive to breathe.
Intrapulmonary shunting refers to
perfusion without ventilation
This clinical manifestation is UNLIKELY present in apatient with tuberculosis infection
Cyanosis
Extrinsic asthma is associated with
IgE-mediated airway inflammation
Copious, foul-smelling respiratory secretions are generally associated with
bronchiectasis
True or False, Chronic bronchitis occurs most commonly in association with long-term cigarette smoking.
True
The pulmonary vascular system responds to
norepinephrine with vasoconstriction.
A condition that results in increased pulmonary vascular resistance is
pulmonary hypoxemia
True or False, Pulmonary artery blood is normally 95% to 100% saturated with oxygen.
False
Croup is characterized by
a barking cough
The type of ventilation-perfusion imbalance that occurs in areas of atelectasis or consolidation is called
true shunt