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143 terms

Anatomy Final

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Temperature sensors on the skin that detect a stimulus
An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature
Transcription
The process of forming mRNA
pH 1
most acidic pH
Stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components in the skin
Why skin can regenerate after considerable damage
Functions of Gycocalyx
identify the cell for the immune system
binding extracellular compounds
lubricating and protect cell membranes
two amino acids
Peptide bond links ___
Distal
The Wrist is _____ to the elbo
Positive
type of feedback that exaggerates the effects of variation from normal
Heart
Midsagittal section would pass through _____
"goose bumps"
When arrector pili muscles contract
Supine
A person is lying on the bed gazing at the ceiling, they are in the ___ position
Papillary
The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the ___ layer
Hypotonic
A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called____
negative
The charge of inside of a cell is____
Heart and blood vessels
Mesothelium is to the body cavities as endothelium is to the
Lymphatic
Organ system that includes the spleen and the tonsils
basal lamina
epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by___
Glucose
the most important fuel molecule in the body is____
Gap junction
the junction type that lets neighboring cells exchange small molecules is the___
Sebaceous
Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ___glands
water molecules
hydrophilic molecules readily associate with____
Endergonic reaction
The reaction A+B+ energy ---> AB is an example of
Peritoneum
The serous membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called
Stratum germinativum
The layer diving cells at the base of the epidermis
Hypotonic Solution
Hemolysis may occur when a blood cell is placed into
Active Transport
A process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called
Cardiac muscle tissue
Intercalated disc and pacemaker cells are characteristic of___
Trachea
You would find pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining the
has oxygen-starved skin
Cyanosis signifies that a patient
Polar covalent bonds
If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a (n)__________ occurs
Functions of the integumentary system
protection of underlying tissue
provision of sensation
excretion of salts and wastes
maintenance of body temperature
Medial
The heart is _____ to the lungs
on the heart
visceral pericardium is located
apocrine
the type of secretion in which some cytoplasm is lost with product
elastin
the protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin is
perichondrium
cartilage is separated from surrounding tissue by fibrous_____
influences diffusion of substance across the cell membrane
the charge of the ion
concentration gradient
the presence of the membrane channels
lipid solubility
Insensible
Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrate through the skin is termed____ perspiration
Cartilage
Chondroitin sulfate is abundant in the matrix of ______
polyunsaturated
fatty acid that contains two or more double covalent bonds is said to be
Uracil
in RNA adenine base pairs to
translation
the process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called
Cytology
the study of the liver is to gross anatomy
endocytosis
a method of transporting a substances into the cell
enzymes
affects only the rate of a chemical reaction
are proteins
function as biological catalysts
lower the activation energy required for reaction
consumed during the reaaction
Fibroblasts
Connective tissue fibers are produced mainly by
neural
tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is ______ tissue
membrane transport mechanisms are passive processes
Faciliated diffustion
osmosis
vesicular transport
diffusion
components of the integumentary system
integument and hypodermis
Acromion
The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the___
Synarthrosis
A suture is an example of___
ligaments associated with hipjoint
iliofemoral ligament
pubofemoral ligament
ischiofemoral ligament
ligamentum teres
Hallux
another name for the big toe
grow longer
when cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the samerate as bone is deposited on teh opposite side,
patella, medial/lateral
Runners knee is caused by ___ moving___ causing the cartilage to wear down and inflame the joint
the sacrum
What bone protects the following: urinary, reproductive, digestive
Axis
Which bone helps you gesture "no"
Cervical and Lumbar
Which of the four curves of the adult spinal column are not present until several months after birth
Ulna, humerus, extends
olecranon, located on the_______, fits into the olecranon
Functions of parathyroid hormone
increasing the rate of Ca aborption
decrease rate of calium excretion
raising level of Ca ion in the blood
stimulating osteoclast activity
Clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum
The only direct connection between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton is where
The ulna and humerus interlocks
the elbow extremely stable because
Properties of synovial joints
freely movable
contains synovial fluid
lined by a secretory epithelium
covered by a capsule
Anterior fontanel, inferior to the frontal bone
The 'soft' spot on infants is called the _________ and is located______
Bones of the pelvis
Coxal bone
sacrum
coccyx
turning the palm upward
which of the following movements is a good example of abduction
Bones grow wider
during appositional growth
marrow
the medullary cavity of bones contains
Trapezoid, capitate, trapezium, hamate
distal carpal bones includes
medial
in anatomical position, the ulna is located___________ to the radius
osteocytes
the lacunae of osseous tissue contains
endosteum
the lining of medullary cavity is called
Shoulder
best example of ball and socket joint
parasnasal sinuses
they provide xtensive area of mucous epithelium
they make skull bones lighter
They include frontal, sphenoidal, and maxillary sinuses and ethmoidal air cells
The mucus they secrete enters the nasal cavites and traps dirt and microbes
spongy
_____ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles
vertebral canal sacral canal
the _____ encloses the spinal cord, while the ____ are passage ways for blood vessels and nerves
calcitonin
elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone___
Bones of the face
Maxilla, zygomatic, manible, vomer
Fibrous cartilage
syndesmosis is to ligament as to symphysis is to ______
Functions of synovial fluid
provides nutrients
lubricatoin
shock absorption
protects articular cartilages
Ilium, ischium, pubis
each coxal bone cosists of what three fused bones
Radius, tibia, interosseous membrane
The ulna and _____ in the forearm and the fibula and ____ in the leg are connected by the ________
As you move caudally along the spinal cord
the vertebral foramina becomes relatively smaller and the dorsal spine grows progressively longer
long and narrow head; craniotenosis
premature closure of the sagittal suture would result in _____, known as_____
protecting the heart, lung, thymus and attaching muscles for respiration
functions of the thoracic cage includes
Vitamins B12, A, E, K
vitamins needed for proper bone formation
Calcaneus
Achilles tendon attaches to which of anatomical structure
Function of the skeletal system
Calcium homeostasis
protection of internal organs
body support
blood cell production
chemicals present in bone
Calcium carbonate
Chondroitin Sulfate
Hydroxyapatite
Calcium phosphate
Canaliculi
Narrow passage ways that contain cytopolasmic extensions of osteocytes are callled
osteoclasts
Cells that first secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called
ribs 1-7, also called vertebrosternal ribs
true ribs are___
hyperextension
looking at the ceiling is an example of__
protrusion of the nucleus pulposus
herniated intervertebral disc is caused by
Coronal
The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bones with the frontal bone is the _________
Formation of cerebrospinal fluid
damage to the ependymal cells would most likely affect the
oliogendrocytes
myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by
isometric
The type of contraction in which the muscle fibers do not change in length is caleld
functions of astrocytes
guiding neuron development
responding to neural tissue damage
maintaining the blood-brain barrier
forming a three-dimensional framework for CNS
moving sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell
sodium-potassium ions exchange pump helps establish membrane potential by
steps in muscle contraction
-Calciumions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
-calcium ion binds to troponin
-troponin shifts, moving tropomyosin and exposing active site on actin
'myosin binds to actin forming cross bridge
- myosin head pivots towards center of sarcromere
- myosin head binds to ATP molecule and detatches from actin
cell bodies of sensory neurons
dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
synergist
muscle that assist the muscle that is primarily responsible for a given action is
classifications of reflexes
development; complexity of neural circuit; whether they are sensory or motor; motor response
head, neck and vertebral column
the axial muscles function to move
phrenic
the ____ nerve which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates in the diaphram
dura mater
tough, fibrous outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
third class
the most common lever in the system in the body are those that have the applied force between the fulcum and the load, these are called ______ levers
Genio
which of the following terms could be used with a muscle that is associated with the chin?
events that occur at the neuromuscular junction
an action potential is generated in neuron and moves down axon
- act potential in neuron cause calcium to rush into synaptic terminal
- neuron releases Ach into Synaptic cleft
- Ach binds to receptors on motor end plates
- Na+ rushes to sarcoplasm
- action potential generated in sarcolemma
convergent
___ muscle fibers pull in different directions, permitting different actions depending on stimulation
depolarization and inward movement of sodium ion will decrease
if the permeability of a resting axon to sodium ion increases
endomysium
the delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers and ties adjacent muscle fibers together is
excitation-contraction coupling
Relaxation requires uptake of calcium ion by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
-Calcium ion is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
- Troponin binds calcium ion and signals tropomyosin to move.
- Tropomyosin moves to expose myosin binding sites on actin.
dorsal ramus
the ______ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back
functions of neuroglia
support,
-maintenance of bloodbrain barrier
- phagocytes
Anaxonic
neurons that are rare, small, and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axons are called
Tropomyosin molecules
at rest, active sites on actin are blocked by
cervical
muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the _______ region
satellite cells
Which of the following glial cell surrounds cell bodies in the peripheral nervous sytem?
slow
the type of muscle fiber that is most resistant to fatigue is _______ fiber
makes up thin filaments of striated muscle
tropomyosin
- troponin
- nebulin
-actin
muscle insertion
tendon attachment that moves
calcium
ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft
have many nuclei
why muscle fibers differ from typical cells
tendon
at each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the eypimysium, and each perimysium and endomysium come together to form a ______
Rectus
muscle with fibers that run parallel to the long axis of the body are called
action potential
In the after-hyperpolarization phase, mem. potential approaches the Na equilibrium potential
- during repolarization, Na channels close and pottassium channels open
_durin depolarization mem. potential b/come +
somatic
the ___ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles
wave summation
occurs when a 2nd stimulus arrives before relaxation phase has ended
Agonist
a muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement
Afferent
part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS
Brachial
in which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?
Wallerian
deteriorating changes in teh distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma is called ___
Calcium ions
in response to action potentials arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases
Nissl bodies
clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neursons are called
depolarization and increase positive charge inside membrane
opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes
circular
muscles that guard entrances and exits of internal passageways are _______ muscles
characteristics of smooth muscles
do not contain sarcromeres
-connective tissues form tendons and aponeuroses
- uninucleate
-innervate muscles are under involuntary control
- thin filaments fibers are attached to dense bodies
abdomen
muscles including the term capitis would be found within or attached to the
epineurium
outermost connective covering of nerve tissue
moves a limb away from painful stimulus
the flexor reflex
axons of motor neurons
ventral root of a spinal nerve contains...