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Temperature sensors on the skin that detect a stimulus

An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature


The process of forming mRNA

pH 1

most acidic pH

Stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components in the skin

Why skin can regenerate after considerable damage

Functions of Gycocalyx

identify the cell for the immune system
binding extracellular compounds
lubricating and protect cell membranes

two amino acids

Peptide bond links ___


The Wrist is _____ to the elbo


type of feedback that exaggerates the effects of variation from normal


Midsagittal section would pass through _____

"goose bumps"

When arrector pili muscles contract


A person is lying on the bed gazing at the ceiling, they are in the ___ position


The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the ___ layer


A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called____


The charge of inside of a cell is____

Heart and blood vessels

Mesothelium is to the body cavities as endothelium is to the


Organ system that includes the spleen and the tonsils

basal lamina

epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by___


the most important fuel molecule in the body is____

Gap junction

the junction type that lets neighboring cells exchange small molecules is the___


Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ___glands

water molecules

hydrophilic molecules readily associate with____

Endergonic reaction

The reaction A+B+ energy ---> AB is an example of


The serous membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called

Stratum germinativum

The layer diving cells at the base of the epidermis

Hypotonic Solution

Hemolysis may occur when a blood cell is placed into

Active Transport

A process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called

Cardiac muscle tissue

Intercalated disc and pacemaker cells are characteristic of___


You would find pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining the

has oxygen-starved skin

Cyanosis signifies that a patient

Polar covalent bonds

If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a (n)__________ occurs

Functions of the integumentary system

protection of underlying tissue
provision of sensation
excretion of salts and wastes
maintenance of body temperature


The heart is _____ to the lungs

on the heart

visceral pericardium is located


the type of secretion in which some cytoplasm is lost with product


the protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin is


cartilage is separated from surrounding tissue by fibrous_____

influences diffusion of substance across the cell membrane

the charge of the ion
concentration gradient
the presence of the membrane channels
lipid solubility


Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrate through the skin is termed____ perspiration


Chondroitin sulfate is abundant in the matrix of ______


fatty acid that contains two or more double covalent bonds is said to be


in RNA adenine base pairs to


the process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called


the study of the liver is to gross anatomy


a method of transporting a substances into the cell


affects only the rate of a chemical reaction
are proteins
function as biological catalysts
lower the activation energy required for reaction
consumed during the reaaction


Connective tissue fibers are produced mainly by


tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is ______ tissue

membrane transport mechanisms are passive processes

Faciliated diffustion
vesicular transport

components of the integumentary system

integument and hypodermis


The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the___


A suture is an example of___

ligaments associated with hipjoint

iliofemoral ligament
pubofemoral ligament
ischiofemoral ligament
ligamentum teres


another name for the big toe

grow longer

when cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the samerate as bone is deposited on teh opposite side,

patella, medial/lateral

Runners knee is caused by ___ moving___ causing the cartilage to wear down and inflame the joint

the sacrum

What bone protects the following: urinary, reproductive, digestive


Which bone helps you gesture "no"

Cervical and Lumbar

Which of the four curves of the adult spinal column are not present until several months after birth

Ulna, humerus, extends

olecranon, located on the_______, fits into the olecranon

Functions of parathyroid hormone

increasing the rate of Ca aborption
decrease rate of calium excretion
raising level of Ca ion in the blood
stimulating osteoclast activity

Clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum

The only direct connection between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton is where

The ulna and humerus interlocks

the elbow extremely stable because

Properties of synovial joints

freely movable
contains synovial fluid
lined by a secretory epithelium
covered by a capsule

Anterior fontanel, inferior to the frontal bone

The 'soft' spot on infants is called the _________ and is located______

Bones of the pelvis

Coxal bone

turning the palm upward

which of the following movements is a good example of abduction

Bones grow wider

during appositional growth


the medullary cavity of bones contains

Trapezoid, capitate, trapezium, hamate

distal carpal bones includes


in anatomical position, the ulna is located___________ to the radius


the lacunae of osseous tissue contains


the lining of medullary cavity is called


best example of ball and socket joint

parasnasal sinuses

they provide xtensive area of mucous epithelium
they make skull bones lighter
They include frontal, sphenoidal, and maxillary sinuses and ethmoidal air cells
The mucus they secrete enters the nasal cavites and traps dirt and microbes


_____ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles

vertebral canal sacral canal

the _____ encloses the spinal cord, while the ____ are passage ways for blood vessels and nerves


elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone___

Bones of the face

Maxilla, zygomatic, manible, vomer

Fibrous cartilage

syndesmosis is to ligament as to symphysis is to ______

Functions of synovial fluid

provides nutrients
shock absorption
protects articular cartilages

Ilium, ischium, pubis

each coxal bone cosists of what three fused bones

Radius, tibia, interosseous membrane

The ulna and _____ in the forearm and the fibula and ____ in the leg are connected by the ________

As you move caudally along the spinal cord

the vertebral foramina becomes relatively smaller and the dorsal spine grows progressively longer

long and narrow head; craniotenosis

premature closure of the sagittal suture would result in _____, known as_____

protecting the heart, lung, thymus and attaching muscles for respiration

functions of the thoracic cage includes

Vitamins B12, A, E, K

vitamins needed for proper bone formation


Achilles tendon attaches to which of anatomical structure

Function of the skeletal system

Calcium homeostasis
protection of internal organs
body support
blood cell production

chemicals present in bone

Calcium carbonate
Chondroitin Sulfate
Calcium phosphate


Narrow passage ways that contain cytopolasmic extensions of osteocytes are callled


Cells that first secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called

ribs 1-7, also called vertebrosternal ribs

true ribs are___


looking at the ceiling is an example of__

protrusion of the nucleus pulposus

herniated intervertebral disc is caused by


The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bones with the frontal bone is the _________

Formation of cerebrospinal fluid

damage to the ependymal cells would most likely affect the


myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by


The type of contraction in which the muscle fibers do not change in length is caleld

functions of astrocytes

guiding neuron development
responding to neural tissue damage
maintaining the blood-brain barrier
forming a three-dimensional framework for CNS

moving sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell

sodium-potassium ions exchange pump helps establish membrane potential by

steps in muscle contraction

-Calciumions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
-calcium ion binds to troponin
-troponin shifts, moving tropomyosin and exposing active site on actin
'myosin binds to actin forming cross bridge
- myosin head pivots towards center of sarcromere
- myosin head binds to ATP molecule and detatches from actin

cell bodies of sensory neurons

dorsal root ganglia mainly contain


muscle that assist the muscle that is primarily responsible for a given action is

classifications of reflexes

development; complexity of neural circuit; whether they are sensory or motor; motor response

head, neck and vertebral column

the axial muscles function to move


the ____ nerve which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates in the diaphram

dura mater

tough, fibrous outermost covering of the spinal cord is the

third class

the most common lever in the system in the body are those that have the applied force between the fulcum and the load, these are called ______ levers


which of the following terms could be used with a muscle that is associated with the chin?

events that occur at the neuromuscular junction

an action potential is generated in neuron and moves down axon
- act potential in neuron cause calcium to rush into synaptic terminal
- neuron releases Ach into Synaptic cleft
- Ach binds to receptors on motor end plates
- Na+ rushes to sarcoplasm
- action potential generated in sarcolemma


___ muscle fibers pull in different directions, permitting different actions depending on stimulation

depolarization and inward movement of sodium ion will decrease

if the permeability of a resting axon to sodium ion increases


the delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers and ties adjacent muscle fibers together is

excitation-contraction coupling

Relaxation requires uptake of calcium ion by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
-Calcium ion is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
- Troponin binds calcium ion and signals tropomyosin to move.
- Tropomyosin moves to expose myosin binding sites on actin.

dorsal ramus

the ______ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back

functions of neuroglia

-maintenance of bloodbrain barrier
- phagocytes


neurons that are rare, small, and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axons are called

Tropomyosin molecules

at rest, active sites on actin are blocked by


muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the _______ region

satellite cells

Which of the following glial cell surrounds cell bodies in the peripheral nervous sytem?


the type of muscle fiber that is most resistant to fatigue is _______ fiber

makes up thin filaments of striated muscle

- troponin
- nebulin

muscle insertion

tendon attachment that moves


ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft

have many nuclei

why muscle fibers differ from typical cells


at each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the eypimysium, and each perimysium and endomysium come together to form a ______


muscle with fibers that run parallel to the long axis of the body are called

action potential

In the after-hyperpolarization phase, mem. potential approaches the Na equilibrium potential
- during repolarization, Na channels close and pottassium channels open
_durin depolarization mem. potential b/come +


the ___ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles

wave summation

occurs when a 2nd stimulus arrives before relaxation phase has ended


a muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement


part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS


in which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?


deteriorating changes in teh distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma is called ___

Calcium ions

in response to action potentials arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases

Nissl bodies

clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neursons are called

depolarization and increase positive charge inside membrane

opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes


muscles that guard entrances and exits of internal passageways are _______ muscles

characteristics of smooth muscles

do not contain sarcromeres
-connective tissues form tendons and aponeuroses
- uninucleate
-innervate muscles are under involuntary control
- thin filaments fibers are attached to dense bodies


muscles including the term capitis would be found within or attached to the


outermost connective covering of nerve tissue

moves a limb away from painful stimulus

the flexor reflex

axons of motor neurons

ventral root of a spinal nerve contains...

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