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cinema final- chapter 9
Terms in this set (59)
what is sound?
most sound in movie scenes operates on both physical and psychological levels. for most narrative films, sound gives cues that help us form expectations about meaning, and shapes our analysis and interpretations.
what is the fundamental difference between silent and sound films?
sound films can intentionally bring attention to silence whereas silent films have no choice.
what are the two senses explicitly engaged by a movie's formal elements?
vision and hearing
what is the role of the sound crew?
generates and controls the sound physically, manipulating its properties to produce the effects that the director desires.
what are the four phases of sound production?
design, recording, editing, and mixing.
when are most sounds in a movie constructed?
during the postproduction phase, these are called postproduction sounds.
the art of creating the sound for a film.
what are the contemporary concepts of sound design?
1. sound should be integral to all three phases of film production, not an afterthought.
2. a film's sound is potentially as expressive as its images.
3. image and sound can create different worlds.
4. image and sound are co-expressible.
what does a sound designer typically do during each stage of production?
preproduction: figure out what kind of sounds are needed to make the movie
production: supervise the implementation of sound
postproduction: aid the editing of the sound
describe the process of recording
the microphone converts sound waves into electrical signals that are then recorded and stored.
reduces the hiss generated by analog sound recording and enables the sound editors to match a movie's sound to the emotional intensity of its pictures.
what is the only type of sound typically recorded during production?
double system recording
standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture. this system synchronizes sound and image, and allows maximum quality control and manipulation of sound.
describe the process of editing
the editor is responsible for the overall process of editing and for the sound crew. the process of editing of both picture ad sound usually lasts longer than the shooting. sound editing takes up a lot of that time.
synchronized picture/sound work prints of a day's shooting.
any footage that will not be used
the actors watch the footage, synchronize their lips with it, and reread the lines
automatic dialogue replacement
a faster, less expensive, and more sophisticated process to rerecording.
describe the process of mixing
combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track with picture. each type of sound occupies an individual sound track.
the level of the sound in a move can be high or low, but usually falls somewhere in between. sometimes editors exploit the highs and lows of pitch on purpose.
the loudness of a sound depends on its amplitude. the greater the amplitude, the louder the sound.
includes those characteristics that enable us to distinguish sounds that have the same pitch and loudness.
a sound's faithfulness or unfaithfulness to its source.
examples of faithful or unfaithful fidelity
unfaithful: someone pointing a gun at someone with their finger and a gun sound going off, but there is not real danger.
faithful: ice crunching and falling when we see it, as a relationship is breaking apart
come from a source within a film's world, the sounds heard by both audience and characters.
sound that comes from a source outside that world, heard only by the audience.
when is nodiegtic sound created?
when is diegetic sound created?
emanates from a source that we can see.
can be either diegetic or nondiegetic, and derives from a source that we don't see.
example of off-screen sound that is diegetic
sound effects, music, or vocals that come from the world of the story.
example of off-screen sound that is nondiegetic
musical score or narration by someone who is not a character in the story.
diegetic sound and on-screen
usually occurs when a character has a mental flashback to an earlier voice that recalls a conversation or a sound that identifies a space.
sound between on-screen and off screen. it is a sound either closely related to the action but not precisely synchronized with it, or a sound that anticipates or follows an action. audience can not see its source.
what is an example of asynchronous sound
in Hitchcock's 39 steps a woman sees a dead body and opens up her mouth to scream but the sound is a high pitched squeal of a train.
occurs whenever we hear what we assume are the thoughts of a character.
comes from a place within the world of the story, and we assume that it is heard by the characters in that world.
recorded during production or rerecorded during postproduction, is the speech of characters who are either visible on screen or speaking offscreen.
the commentary spoken by either off-screen or on-screen voices
what is an on-screen "chorus"?
a device that derives from Greek drama, townspeople that offer their own opinions and interpretations, acting as both characters and narrators.
emanates from the background of the setting or environment being filmed, is either recorded during production or added during postproduction.
include all sounds artificially created for the sound track that have a definite function in telling the story.
what is wild recording?
any recording of sound not made during shooting of the movie.
created by Jack Foley in the 1930's at Universal Studios, these sounds are recorded in sync with the picture.
what is the difference between traditional sound effects and foley sounds?
traditional sound effects are created and recorded "wild" and then edited into the film. Foley sounds are also unique, whereas sound effects can be taken directly from a library of prerecorded effects.
how are foley sounds created?
foley artists have recording equipment and a screen for viewing the movie as they create sounds in sync with it.
who wrote the fist film score?
French composer Camille Saint-Saëns
silence can be a sound when the filmmaker deliberately suppresses the vocal, environmental, or musical sounds that we expect in a movie. Silence frustrate the audience's normal expectations.
sound can define sections of the screen, guide our attention to or between them, and influence our interpretation.
how does sound create audience expectations?
couple in quiet room hearing movement, versus couple not hearing movement --> expect different things
how does sound express point of view?
sounds of a big city showing it is unlivable, versus sounds of an expensive sea shore home.
how does sound provide rhythm?
something that is making a sound pattern in the movie connects on a deeper level with the overall plot.
what is an example of sound characterization?
in Young Frankestein, whenever audience hears name Frau Blücher we hear the sounds of horses whining like we did when she was first introduced.
how does sound help a movie achieve continuity?
sound can link one shot to the next, indicating that the scene has not changed in either time or space.
carries the sound from a first shot over to the next before the sound of the second shot begins. ex) man singing a song while woman dies, then in next scene he is still singing the song
how does sound create emphasis?
sound can function as a punctuation mark when it accentuates and strengthens the visual image.
how did Orson Welles get famous overnight?
His radio show War of the Worlds
how does sound provide characterization in Citizen Kane?
The different voices of Kane, Bernstein, and Leland show what kind of people they are, their beliefs, and how they grew up. Kane's loud voice shows he's the boss and is cocky.
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