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AESC Final: Spring 19
Terms in this set (107)
the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power
food politics involve the governmental control and debate over the __________, __________, __________, __________, & _________ of food.
food politics are affected by the _______, _________, __________, and _________ disputes concerning farming, agricultural, and retailing methods and regulations
Food politics influence what 3 food characteristics?
COSTS of food & prices that consumers pay
AVAILABILITY of different food products
SAFETY of the food supply
What are most often at the heart of food politics?
non-perishable storable commodity crops
corn, rice, wheat
Global food politics focus on:
◦ Protectionist trade policies
◦ International trade agreements
◦ Political instability
◦ Climate change
US Food Politics focus on
1. Modern techniques of rearing animals
2. Genetically Modified Foods
3. "Big" Food Companies
4. Pesticide use on crops
5. Food Movements
animal feeding operations with more than 1000 animal units
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs)
any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
The 10 largest food companies in the US produce more that _____ of all domestic food sales
Top 5 companies in terms of US food revenue
1. PepsiCo, Inc
2. Tyson Foods
4. JBS USA
Pesticides on crops were one of the keys to crop yield increases during what time period?
What has jurisdiction over the use of pesticides in crop management and sets tolerances for trace amounts of pesticides that may be found in the food supply?
US Environmental Protection Agency
Modern cultural reactions against what many see as an increasingly mechanized food industry
Examples of food movements
seek to protect qualifying farmers and ranchers from nuisance lawsuits filed by individuals who move into a rural area where normal farming operations exist, and who later use nuisance actions to attempt to stop those ongoing operations.
The right-to-farm law is the same in every state
False; each state has noticeably different content in the specific details of the laws.
In general, right-to farm laws
◦ Prohibit local governments from passing stricter laws on agriculture than the laws of the state
◦ Restrict nuisance suits if the plaintiff moved to the area of an already established agricultural operation
◦ Restrict nuisance suits if the farm operation engages in generally accepted agricultural practices that do not violate any laws
◦ Restrict nuisance suits if the farm operation is located in an agricultural zone
◦ Order the plaintiff to pay attorneys fees of the defendant if the plaintiff loses the case
What was Oklahoma: State Question 777 designed to require courts to do?
apply the same standards to lawsuits concerning agriculture and livestock as in cases concerning free speech, gun ownership, and religious freedom.
The Oklahoma: State Question 777 included any laws regulating farming and agriculture passed after what date?
December 31, 2014
North America Free Trade Agreement
NAFTA is a trade agreement between what countries?
NAFTA went into effect when?
January 1, 1994
What does NAFTA do?
eliminates tariffs associated with imported and exported goods between the 3 countries involved
a tax or "duty" added to the price of imported goods, designed to encourage domestic consumption of goods
Regarding NAFTA, the bulk of trading takes place between who?
the US and Mexico
the US and Canada
Pros of NAFTA
➢ Expanded variety of foods for U.S. consumers, with stabilized year-around supplies (example: fresh fruits and vegetables)
➢ Larger market for U.S. goods not available in trading partner countries
Cons of NAFTA
➢ Loss of business (i.e., jobs) associated with products that can be supplied more inexpensively by free trade partners
➢Increased U.S. trade deficit - the amount by which the cost of a country's imports exceeds the value of its exports
the partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country or a group of countries
When are embargo most useful?
as a POLITICAL tool to pressure foreign countries into some action, OR are used as a POLITICAL retaliation act in reaction to previous POLITICAL action.
Following acts of aggression by Russia in the
Ukraine (starting in early 2014), several countries imposed sanctions on Russia
Russian Food Embargos
In retaliation to the sanctions imposed on them, what did Russia do?
issued Food Embargos on
the countries that had imposed sanctions on them.
A government set maximum volume of a product that can be imported into a country.
Why are quotas typically established?
assist in price stabilization for a domestic product
Quotas are considered (more/less) severe that an embargo
In the US what commodities are subject to absolute quotas?
Examples of TRQ products
milk and cream
What is often used to establish a politically neutral position?
You can't be sure about anything
What books by Paul Ehrlich foretold billions of death by starvation and the collapse of civilization?
The Population Bomb
Development and spread of technology, plant varieties, and agricultural practices between 1940-1960s
The beginnings of the Green Revolution are often attributed to who?
What did the Green Revolution focus on? What did this lead to?
-high yield, high nutrient varieties that respond to fertilizers
-increase use of irrigation
a medicine (e.g., penicillin) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action, OR
• a synthetic substance with an effect similar to that of an animal or plant hormone.
Pros of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics in chicken feed
Increase growth rate and feed efficiency
Prevent or reduce incidence of diseases
Cons of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics in chicken feed
Increase growth rate and feed efficiency
Antibiotic resistant bacteria
Protein Hormone produced by the cow naturally to stimulate milk production
Walmart will only sell milk from non-BST treated
kill specific target plants, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed
substances meant for attracting, seducing, destroying, or mitigating any pest
primary nutrients in fertilizers
nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
secondary nutrients in fertilizers
calcium, magnesium, and sulfur
micronutrients in fertilizers
copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, nickel, boron, silicon, cobalt, and vanadium
a chemical or natural substance added to soil to increase its fertility.
excess nutrients = ??
What did we use before synthetic fertilizer?
What do Moon Farms produce
Moon Farms is a ___ generation farm
T/F: When Moon Farms began, they farmed cotton.
Where is Moon Farms located?
What is the poverty line in the US based on?
how much money a family of 4 needs to buy a nutritionally adequate diet using 1/3 of its income for food
What is poverty line?
24,000 for family of 4
What 2 colleges did Keith Kelly attend?
ABAC and UGA
T/F: Entry into agriculture industry is expensive.
What market does Keith Kelly own?
Where did Sonny Perdue graduate from?
Warner Robins Highs School
T/F: Sonny Perdue was a walk-on football player at UGA.
When was Sonny Perdue governor of Georgia?
When was Sonny Perdue appointed as the US Secretary of Agriculture?
What percent (%) of the total USDA budgetis devoted to Nutrition (Food Assistance) Programsadministered through the FNS (Food & Nutrition Service)?
What does SNP stand for?
Special Nutrition Program
What does WIC stand for?
Women, Infants, & Children
What does SNAP stand for?
Supplemental Nutritional Assistance
T/F: Most food and nutrition service programs are managed by the individual states.
What nutrition program focuses on school-aged children?
What nutrition program features vouchers that list what can be purchased and when it can be purchased?
What name has replaced "food stamps"?
What is the largest FNS program in the US?
Why were food stamps originally developed?
unload surplus wheat and other products bought by the government to support farm prices
What 3 factors determine SNAP eligibility?
At what annual income level does a family of 4 in the U.S. become eligible for SNAP benefits?
Net income on $2,025
What is the maximum monthly SNAP benefit 1 person can receive?
SNAP serves how many people in the US?
~44 million (14% of population)
What percent of Georgia's population receive SNAP benefits?
When compared to all other states, Georgia has the ____ highest percent of people on food stamps?
1 in ___ Americans gets sick each year because of a food borne disease.
What book aimed to highlight poor worker conditions in packing plants, expose health violations and unsanitary practices, and lead to food safety reforms?
the public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
What organization is charged with protecting consumers agains unsafe or incorrectly labeled products and also regulates foods other than meat, poultry, and egg products?
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
What organization leads federal efforts to gather data on food borne illnesses, investigate food borne illnesses and outbreaks, and monitor the effectiveness of prevention and control efforts in reducing food borne illnesses?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
What does FSMA stand for?
Food Safety Modernization Act
What amendment to FSMA exempts small businesses, says that small businesses should be regulated at state and local levels, and states that products must be labelled from their source?
What is the main pathogen in the US?
Wonderful pistachios caused what type of outbreak?
Chipotle caused what type of outbreak?
Salmonella is mostly associated with what meat?
the way in which an organization or group approaches food safety
food safety culture
What are 6 culture factors contributing to food safety performance?
food safety management systems
style commitment to food safety
food safety environment
What type of food handlers are viewed as more risky? (non-kin or kin)
What are some changes in culture that has lead to an increase in food borne illnesses contacted in the home?
Loss of ability to cook
Loss of ability to clean
Increased number of exotic pets
Large portion sizes (storage)
Increased consumption of fresh fruits and veggies
Bake sales and picnics
T/F: Minority and low SES populations appear to suffer from higher rates of certain foodborne pathogens.
What is a low-income area that has less access to supermarkets/large grocery stores?
T/F: Amount on money Americans spend on dining out has increased.
T/F: 95% of chicken is sold live in India
What are 5 factors identified by the World Health Organization that contribute to food borne illness?
separate raw and cooked
keep food at safe temp
use safe water and raw materials
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