DP Bio - Cells (1)
Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course
Terms in this set (111)
a theory that some eukaryotic organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, originated as free-living prokaryotes that invaded primitive eukaryotic cells.
a nearly universal sequence of nucleotides in DNA that determines the specific amino acid sequence in the synthesis of proteins.
French scientist that proved, among other things, that the emergent growth of bacteria in nutrient broths is due to biogenesis, not spontaneous generation.
old theory that believed in the formation of living organisms from non-living matter.
technique used for the elimination of microbiological organisms to achieve a sterile microbial environment.
a type of asexual reproduction common among prokaryotes where one cell divides giving rise to two cells, each having the potential to grow to the size of the original cell.
general term for more than 100 diseases that are characterized by uncontrolled, abnormal growth of cells.
a membrane that forms midway between dividing plant cells during cytokinesis and later becomes the cell wall.
a self-replicating cylindrical organelle that is involved in the process of nuclear division.
the region joining the two sister chromatids where it becomes attached to the spindle fibres.
linear strand of DNA bonded to proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genetic information.
a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.
the division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, following the division of the nucleus, resulting in two cells in mitosis.
the figure formed by the chromosomes in the centre of the spindle during mitosis.
stage in mitosis in which chromosomes become arranged at the equatorial plate.
characteristic of malignant tumours of transferring the disease from one organ to another not directly connected with it.
hollow protein tubes seen during the mitosis of animal cells.
the process where a single cell divides into two identical cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes and genetic content as that of the original cell.
the ratio between the number of cells in mitosis to the total number of cells.
chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation.
a gene that causes normal cells to change into cancerous tumour cells.
first stage of mitosis during which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears.
two identical strands of DNA joined by a common centromere.
network of filaments that collectively form a mitotic spindle in mitosis. They are involved in moving the chromosomes during nuclear division.
twisting in the opposite direction to the turns of the double helix during the first stage of mitosis.
the final stage of mitosis in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around them.
abnormal proliferation of cells, either benign or malignant.
movement of substances across membranes using energy in the form of ATP.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
The energy molecule.
a gradient resulting from an unequal distribution of ions across the cell membrane.
passive movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
the process in which the cell takes in materials from the outside by infolding of the membrane to form a vesicle.
the process in which the cell releases materials to the outside by discharging them as membrane-bounded vesicles that pass through the cell membrane.
diffusion through a membrane that requires proteins.
a more concentrated solution relative to another fluid.
a less concentrated solution relative to another fluid.
control of the water balance of a living organism.
passive movement of water molecules from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.
when material is released from a cell.
membrane that allows some substances to diffuse through but not others. Transport pumps proteins in the plasma membrane that use ATP to move substances across the membrane. Vesicles a bubble-like membranous structure that stores and transports cellular products.
molecule that has hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
a lipid that prevents the membrane from becoming too and also prevents it from crystalizing.
model of the cell membrane in which the phospholipid bilayer is between two layers of protein.
proteins arranged in chains on the membrane to allow the transfer of electrons from one carrier to another.
Fluid mosaic model
a model conceived by S.J. Singer and Garth Nicolson in 1972 to describe the observed structural features of biological membranes.
refers to the viscosity of a lipid bilayer of the membrane that allows it to change shape.
proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains.
proteins on the outside of the membrane that allow specific hormones to bind.
molecules that are attracted to water.
molecules that are not attracted to water but are attracted to each other.
proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
proteins on the surface of the plasma membrane.
the rate of passive diffusion of molecules through the membrane, which depends on the electric charge, size, and polarity of the molecule.
two layers of phospholipids arranged so that their hydrophobic tails are projecting inwards while their polar head groups are on the outside surfaces.
a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
current model of membrane structure that incorporates a fluid mosaic structure in a discontinuous lipid bilayer.
proteins in the plasma membrane that release energy and use it to move substances across the membrane.
the size of prokaryotic ribosomes.
the size of eukaryotic ribosomes.
a domain of prokaryotes.
a domain of prokaryotes.
method of prokaryotic cell division.
non-living carbohydrate-based extracellular material.
seen in eukaryotes; consequence of organelles being membrane-bound.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
site of synthesis of proteins destined for export or for secretion.
organisms with membrane-bound nuclei.
glands that secrete their products into ducts.
a network of material that is secreted by cells that serves to support, strengthen, and organize cells.
a relatively long extension of the cell used in locomotion.
a eukaryotic organelle that modifies proteins after translation.
a protein associated with DNA that plays a role in gene expression and the packing of DNA.
a cellular organelle involved in cellular digestion.
DNA not associated with histones or histone-like proteins.
a region of the prokaryotic cell where DNA is located.
membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotes that contains DNA; it is the site of replication and transcription.
a sub-cellular structure or membrane-bound compartment with a distinct structure and function.
photosynthetic tissue below the epidermis in a leaf.
extensions of the prokaryotic cell surface membrane used for reproduction.
extra-chromosomal DNA in a prokaryote.
category of a cell without a membrane-bound nucleus: archaea and bacteria.
rough ER - ER with ribosomes attached.
the ability to see adjacent objects or structures as distinct from each other.
organelle involved in protein synthesis.
Scanning electron microscope
an electron microscope that generates a three-dimensional image.
endoplasmic reticulum that synthesizes new membrane and does not have ribosomes attached.
unit of molecule size based on the position that material settles out in a centrifuge tube after spinning. Larger particles tend to settle out faster and so have higher Svedberg values.
Transmission electron microscope
an electron microscope that produces two-dimensional images.
the detailed structure of a biological entity.
theory that states that all organisms are composed of cells, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
metric prefix 1/100th or 1 × 10-2.
Coarse focus dial
used to initially focus a light microscope on a specimen.
the alteration of a cell's morphology and physiology through changes in gene expression.
a property of a system that emerges from the interaction of the elements of the system.
the synthesis of a functional gene product, often protein, but also rRNA, tRNA, or snRNA.
an increase in physical size.
the process in which an organism regulates activities within cells and their bodies to keep conditions stable.
ratio of image size to actual size.
the sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism or within a cell.
metric prefix 1 × 10-6.
metric prefix 1 × 10-3.
metric prefix 1 × 10-9.
the part of the microscope that gathers light from the specimen and focuses it to produce a real image.
genus of single-celled ciliated organisms.
an approach to science that holds that a complex system can be best understood as the sum of its parts, and that variables can be studied in isolation.
in behavioural science, the behaviour that is the consequence of a stimulus.
a means of visually indicating the magnification of an image.
a degenerative eye disease that has been the target of stem cell research.
a relatively undifferentiated cell that can give rise to other types of cells and retains the ability to divide.
Surface area to volume ratio
a variable that decreases as cells grow, so that it sets a limit to the size of cells.
a level of organization that emerges due to the interaction of elements.
a group of cells with a common function and structure.