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Politics of the United States
Unit 4: Executive Branch
Terms in this set (43)
what are the presidential requirements for office?
1) united states resident for 14 years
2) at least 35 years old
3) natural born united states citizen
what are the formal powers of the president?
1) power as commander in chief
2) power as chief executive of the government
3) head of state and powers in foreign affairs
4) powers as chief legislator
what are examples of powers as commander in chief?
leader of army, navy, and militia
what are some examples of powers as chief executive of the government?
1) grants pardons and reprieves
2) appointing judges
3) carry out laws
4) can fill vacancies in senate while they are out of session
what are examples of powers as head of state and powers in foreign affairs?
1) shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers
2) make treaties
3) can appoint ambassadors
what are examples of powers as chief legislator?
1) give state of union address
2) can recommend measures to legislative branch
3) can convene congress in extraordinary circumstances
what are the informal powers of the president?
1) executive orders
2) executive agreements
3) executive privilege
what are executive orders?
presidential directive that becomes a law without prior congressional approval (executive power clause provides for arrange of implied powers)
what are executive agreements?
pact other than a treaty made by the president with a foreign country that allows them to act without congressional backing
what are executive privileges?
claim asserted by president and other members of executive branch to justify with holding of documents and information from other branches of the government supersede any united states laws
why are informal powers more important than formal powers (for presidents)?
they don't need to go through congress, it if important for executive to get things done fast (don't need to deal with polarization)
what are some advantages and disadvantages of the presidents informal powers?
1) more efficient and time continuous
1) president can go around unchecked
3) lasts as long as president wants to keep it there (can get rid of previous presidents executive orders bc it is not as firm as a law)
do informal powers create an imperial presidency (empire)?
it makes the president more powerful at expense of congress. it is dictator like and the president can make decisions unchecked
what are the formal checks of the president?
checks by congress, limits of presidential power, checks by judiciary, and constitutional amendments limiting presidential power
what are the checks by congress?
1) Senate has the sole power to try impeachments (need 2/3 of Senate to find guilty)
2) if a president vetoes a bill, 2/3 of congress can pass it to make it a law
3) all legislative powers are granted to congress
4) House can charge impeachment (only need a majority to draw charges)
5) congress can make a law to limit power
6) congress can declare war
7) wars power resolution
How is the wars power resolution a check on the president by congress?
although the president does not have to ask permission of congress to send troops, they must tell congress within 48 hours of sending troops. the president can use the troops for 60 days but if they want to go past 60 days, congress either has to declare war or reauthorize troops or the president must withdraw the troops. if the president wants to keep troops longer without congress declaring war, there is a 30 day grace period/ extension after the 60 days are up for the safety of the troops
what are the limits on presidential power?
1) congress can block someone put in executive departments, judges, ambassadors, and ministers
2) congress must approve treaties
3) requires the opinion of the principal officer in each of the executive departments (army, navy) when calling them to service
4) congress can stop the appointment of officers that the president chooses when there is an open seat
what are the checks by judiciary on presidential power?
1) the laws of the united states, and treaties mare, shall be under their authority, to all cares affecting
2) punishment of treason
3) can say an executive order, action, or execution of law is unconstitutional
what are the constitutional amendments that limit presidential power?
1) 22nd amendment: limits presidents term to 2 ( after Franklin D Roosevelt)
2) 12th amendment: president and vice president are on separate ballots
3) 20th amendment: lame duck period (between election and inauguration) shrinks by moving inauguration from march to January
4) 25th amendment: presidential succession (who's next) goes; president, vice president, speaker of the house, and pro tempore; also presidential disability (can take power away from president)
what are the informal checks on presidential power?
1) public opinion
2) the media
3) partisan politics
4) investigative role of congress (hold hearings)
5) interest groups and non government organizations
how does public opinion limit presidential power?
1) president has to do things to please the public opinion
2) make actions so they get reelected
1) do things to help their party become more popular
2) don't want public to vote legislators out of office to make them disagree with the president
how does the media limit presidential power?
1) make sure they look good online
2) be careful what they do so they don't cause a stirrup online
3) changing citizens perspectives on themselves
how does partisan politics limit presidential power?
1) other political parties doing things to stop president's agenda
how does the investigative role of congress limit presidential power?
1) president thinks twice about making decisions and "tightening up" and being more strict
2) hold presidents accountable
how does interest and non government organization limit presidential power?
2) providing money to a campaign of the opponent of the president
3) can influence supreme and lower courts
4) organize individuals
5) fund campaigns of members of congress
what are 8 of the main presidential roles?
1) chief of state
2) chief executive
3) chief administer
4) chief diplomat
5) commander in chief
6) chief legislator
7) chief of party
8) chief citizen
what is chief of state?
term for the president as the ceremonial head of the united states, the symbol of all people of the nation (reigns and rules)
what is chief executive?
term for the president as vested with the executive power of the united states, broad in both domestic and foreign affairs
what is chief administer?
term for the president as head of the administration of the federal government , heads 1 of the largest governmental machines, manages executive branch
what is chief diplomat?
term for the president as the main architect of foreign policy and spokesman to other countries
what is commander in chief?
term for the president as commander of the nation's armed forces, dominant in both foreign affairs and military
what is chief legislator?
term for the president as architect of public policy and the 1 who sets the agenda for congress, initiates, suggests , requests, insists, and demands that congress enacts most of the major pieces of legislation
what is chief of party?
term for the president as the leader of his or her political party, unchallenged in this role, not mentioned in constitution
what is chief citizen?
term for the president as the representative of the people, working for the public interest, a place of moral leadership
what are some perks of being president?
1) white house
2) personal staff
3) the south lawn amenities
4) blair house
5) ground transportation and air transportation
6) security and advance team
7) camp david
8) salary (400,000 and other expenses for travel and such)
9) retirement perks
10) air force one and marine one
what happens if no one wins a majority for the election of vice president?
the senate must choose a vice president, a full majority of the senate is needed for that person to be elected
a person who inherits a title or office
to bring formal charges against public officials; the house of representatives has the sole power to impeach civil officers and the senate has the sole power to try, judge, in impeachment cases
what percent of the house is needed to impeach someone and what percent of the senate is needed to try someone?
majority in the house and 2/3 in the senate
what does it mean to acquit someone?
to find not guilty of a charge
what is perjury?
the act of lying under oath
what is censure?
issue a formal condemnation
what us subpoenas?
an order for a person to appear and to produce documents or other requested materials
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