94 terms

2017 Fall Final Review

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Independent variable
factor that changes in an experiment
dependent variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Scientific Process
observation, hypothesis, experiment/further observation, data, conclusion
Characteristics of Living Things
Respond to their environment, need energy, grow, reproduce, must get rid of wastes
Cellular respiration formula
C6H12O + 6O2 ➡️ 6CO2 + H2O + energy
Glucose + Oxygen --> = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
Photosynthesis formula
6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight ---> C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
Carbon Dioxide + Water = Glucose and Oxygen
Proteins
Amino Acids, nutrients needed for growth and repair
Carbohydrates
A class of nutrients that include sugars, fiber and starches
Lipids
Biological molecules such as fats, oils, and waxes. Protects organs and keeps body warm.
Hydrotropism
the way a plant grows or moves in response to water
Thigmotropism
A growth response to touch
Gravitropism
response of a plant to the force of gravity
Phototropism
Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light.
Turgor presssure
caused by the pressure of water on the cell walls of plant cells. LOW causes wilting, HIGH causes full extension of leaves.
Chlorophyll
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
Site of Cellular Respiration
Mitochondria & Cytoplasm of animal cells
Photosynthesis
The process plants use to create their own food/chemical energy out of light, carbon dioxide, and water.
Cell Theory
The theory that all living things are composed of cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and that all cells come from other cells.
Levels of Organization
cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Nucleic Acids
DNA and RNA in cell nucleus
Macromolecule
A large molecule, such as a protein or nucleic acid
Prokaryote
Unicellular organism that has NO nucleus, but does have a cell membrane
Eukaryote
Multicellular organism that has a nucleus surrounded by a cell membrane
Nucleus
control center of the cell, makes ribosomes and stores DNA; brain of the cell
Ribosomes
create proteins that the cell uses or releases
Cell Membrane
selectively permeable membrane regulating what enters and exits the cell
Cytoplasm
gel-like substance that organelles are held in. Fills space
Mitochondria
the cell's energy source providing power & making ATP (energy)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
This is the transportation system of the cell that carries ribosomes. Rough has ribosomes, Smooth has tubes.
Vacuole
storage compartment of cell for water and food; LARGER in PLANT cells
Cell Wall
ONLY IN PLANT CELLS, rigid structure that protects the cell
Diffusion
Occurs when molecules in an area go from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration, so they spread out
Chloroplasts
ONLY IN LEAVES OF PLANT CELLS, allows plants to make their own food.
Digestive Organs/Parts
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
Digestive Functions
Digestion, absorption and elimination
Muscular Organs/Parts
Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle.
Muscular Functions
Movement of the body, circulating blood and moving food through the digestive system.
Skeletal Organs/Parts
Bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.
Skeletal Functions
Support body, protect internal organs, allow movement, store minerals, produce red blood cells.
Circulatory Organs/Parts
Heart, arteries, veins
Circulatory Functions
Deliver nutrients and oxygen to every cell in the body and remove carbon dioxide and waste. FIght infection.
Integumentary Organs/Parts
Epidermis and dermis, skin, hair nails, sweat glands
Integumentary Functions
Guard against infection and injuries, helps regulate body temperature
Water
most important substance needed by organisms
Minerals
used to describe naturally occurring nutrients, not made by living things such as iron, potassium, and calcium.
Vitamins
Compounds that must come from food that help regulate many body processes. Represented by letters.
Absorption
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the villi in the small intestine and into the blood.
Stomach
Large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food. MOST mechanical digestion happens here.
Contract/Relax
Muscles cells can only ____________ (flex). If not, they ___________ (rest).
Tendons
Connect muscle to bone
Ligaments
Connect bone to bone
Cartilage
Flexible connective tissue in between bones. Also in ears and nose.
Skeletal muscles
Voluntary striated Muscles attached to bone that cause body movements and MUST work in pairs because muscle cells can ONLY CONTRACT
Smooth muscles
Involuntary non-striated muscles that control many types of movement within the body (such as digestion)
Cardiac Muscle
Involuntary striated muscle tissue found only in the heart.
Bones
Hard, flexible structures that provide support for the body and protection to vital organs. Store minerals such as calcium and phosphorous.
Joint
A place where two or more bones meet
Osteoperosis
A disease in which a lack of calcium causes bones to become brittle and weaken.
Vena Cava
Largest vein in the body that empties deoxygenated blood in the right atrium
Chambers of the Heart
(4) Left & Right Atriums and Left & Right Ventricles
Valves
Separate chambers of the heart. Also in veins to keep blood flowing properly.
Arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart (high in oxygen)
Veins
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart (low in oxygen)
Capillaries
Tiny blood vessels that exchange nutrients and waste; connects veins to arteries
Aorta
Largest artery in the body that sends blood to the upper and lower body
Liver
Largest internal organ of the body that produces bile
Pancreas
Organ beneath the stomach that produces digestive enzymes to aid in digestion
Epidermis
Outermost layer of the skin composed of mostly dead cells
Dermis
Second (middle) layer of skin, holding blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles
Hypodermis
Fatty Layer The innermost layer of skin that insulates the body, acts as a protective padding and stores energy
Melanocytes
cells that contain melanin - give skin color
Red blood cells
blood cells containing hemoglobin that carry oxygen and nutrients through the bloodstream
White blood cells
Blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease-causing microorganisms
Platelets
Cell fragments that play an important part in forming blood clots and seal up cuts
Plasma
Liquid part of blood
Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction such as budding (in hydra), & fission (in bacteria), that only involves one parent resulting in a clone with no genetic variation.
Sexual Reproduction
Process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism, provides genetic variation.
Genotype
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
Phenotype
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
Mitosis
Cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Interphase
The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs as the cell grows and develops
Centromere
Region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach
Prophase
Stage of mitosis where chromosomes become visable, nuclear membrane dissolves, spindles form
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
Telophase
After the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis.
Cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells after mitosis.
Chromosomes
thread like structures that have genetic info that is passed down from one generation to the next (46 total)
Heterozygous
An organism that has two DIFFERENT alleles for a trait
Homozygous
An organism that has two IDENTICAL alleles for a trait
Alleles
The different forms of a gene
Punnett Square
A diagram used to predict the probability of how traits could be passed from parent to offpring
Alleles
Different forms of a gene
Probability
The likelihood that a particular event will occur

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