miladys chapter 13 basics of electricity
Terms in this set (84)
Does not occupy space or have mass (weight), so it is not matter.
Is the movement of particles around an atom that creates pure energy. It is a form of energy that exhibits magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects when it is in motion.
The flow of electricity along a conductor.
All materials can be classified as conductors or nonconductors (insulators), depending on the ease with which an electric current can be transmitted throught them.
Is any material that conducts electricity.
Most metals are good conductors.
A good conductor and is used in electric writing and electric motors.
Pure distilled water
A poor conductor, but the ions usually found in ordinary water, such as tap water or river water, make a good conductor.
Aka as nonconductor.
A material that doesn't transmit electricity.
Rubber, silk, wood, glass, and cement.
Complete electric circuit
Path of negative and positive electric currents moving the generating source through the conductors and back to the generating source.
Two types of electric currents
Direct and alternating
Abbreviated DC, is a constant even flowing current that travels in one direction only and is produced by chemical means. Battery operated hairstyling tools are an example.
Abbreviated AC, is a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction; produced by mechanical means and changes directions 60 times per second.
Cordless hairstyling tools
Example of alternating current.
An apparatus that changes alternating current to direct current. Example something that needs to be charge such as cordless clippers, use a rectifier to change the AC from wall outlet to DC.
186,000 miles per second.
Constant, even flow, travels in one direction, produced by chemical means.
Rapid and interrupted flow, travels in two directions, produced by mechanical means.
Without it neither water nor electricity would flow.
Abbreviated V and also known as voltage is the unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes electric current forward through a conductor.
Normal electric wall sockets that power a hairdryer or curling iron.
Most air conditioners, and clothes dryers.
Ampere , amp or A
The unit that measures the strength of an electric current.
Higher amp rating
Indicates a greater number of electrons and a stronger current.
Milliampere or mA
1/1000 of an ampere. Facial and scalp treatments is measured in Milliamperes; an ampere is too strong.
Omh or O
Is the unit that measures the resistance of an electric current.
Watt or W
Is a unit that measured how much electric energy is being used in one second. A 40 watt light bulb uses 40 watts of energy per second.
Kilowatt or K
Is 1000 watts. Electricity in your house is measured in kilowatts per hour. 1000 watt dryer uses 1000 watts of energy per second.
Two electrical safety devices
A fuse, and circuit breaker.
Completes an electric circuit and carries the current safely away.
Two prong plug
All electrical appliances must have at least two rectangilar electrical connections, or prongs, on the plug.
Three prong plug
For added protection, some appliances have a third circular electric connection that is a grounding pin.
Underwriters Laboratories or UL
Company that certifies the safety of electrical appliances.
The use of electrical currents to treat the skin
Currents used in electrical facial and scalp treatments.
Aka probe, is an applicator for directing electric current from an Electrotherapy device to the client's skin, usually made of carbon, glass, or metal.
The negative or positive pole of an electric current. Most devices have one negative and one positive pole.
Positive electrode, usually red and marked with a P or +.
The negative electrode, usually black and marked with a N or -.
Galvanic Current, microcurrent, and Tesla high-frequency current.
A constant and direct current, having a positive and negative pole, that produces chemical changes when it passes through the tissues and fluids of the body.
Positive pole (anode) cataphoresis
Produces acidic reactions, closes the pores, soothes nerves, decreases blood supply, contracts blood vessels, hardens and firms tissues.
Negative pole (cathode) anaphoresis
Produces alkaline reactions, opens the pores, stimulates and irritates the nerves, increases blood supply, expands blood vessels, softens tissues.
The electrode used on the area to be treated.
The opposite pole from the active electrode.
The process of infusing water-soluble products into the skin with the use of electric current, such as the use of the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine.
Infuses an acidic (positive) product into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive pole toward the negative pole.
Infuses an alkaline (negative) product into the tissues from the negative pole toward the positive pole.
Is a form of anaphoresis and is a process used to soften and emulsify grease deposits and blackheads in the hair follicles, frequently used to treat acne, milia, and comedones.
An extremely low level of electricity that mirrors the body's natural electrical impulses; can be used for iontophoresis, firming, toning, and soothing akin. Also help inflamed tissue.
Microcurrent can be effective
Improves blood and lymph circulation, produces acidic and alkaline reactions, opens and closes hair follicles and pores, increases muscle tone, restores elasticity, reduces redness and inflammation, minimizes healing time for acne lesions, improves the natural protective barrier of the skin, increases metabolism.
Tesla high-frequency current
Aka violet ray, is a thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration that is commonly used for scalp and facial treatments.
Tesla high-frequency benefits
Stimulates blood circulation, increases elimination and absorbtion, increases skin metabolism, improves germicidal action, relieves skin congestion.
A condition that requires avaoiding certain treatments, procedures, or products to prevent undesireable side effects.
Should not be used on clients with pacemakers, epilepsy, cancer, pregnancy, phlebitis, or thrombosis.
Aka electromagnetic spectrum of radiation, is the name given to all the forms of energy or radiation that exist. The forms of energy are radio waves, used in radios and televisions ; microwaves, used in microwave ovens; and ultraviolet light, used for light therapy services; xrays, used by physicians; and gamma rays, used for nuclear power plants. Energy moves through space on waves.
The distance between successive peaks of electromagnetic waves.
The measurement of the distance between two wavelengths.
Low frequency, deeper penetration, less energy.
High frequency, less penetration, more energy.
Visible spectrum of light
The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen.
Only makes up 35% of natural sunlight. Violet had the shortest wavelength and red has the longest.
Light at either end of the visible spectrum of light that is invisible to naked eye.
Longer wavelength, lower frequency, more penetrating, invisible, 60% of natural sunshine.
Shorter wavelength, higher frequency, less penetrating, invisible, 5% of natural sunshine
Natural sunlight is made up of three types of light
35% Visible light, 60% invisible infrared, 5% invisible ultraviolet.
Cold light or actinic light, is invisible light that has short wavelength , giving it higher energy, is less penetrating than visible chemical reactions to happen quickly , produces less heat, kills some germs.
Three types of UV light
Ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), ultraviolet c, (UVC)
Longest wavelength, penetrates into dermis of skin, damages collagen and elastin. Causes skin cancer.
burning light due to association with sunburns. Causes skin cancer
Blocked by the ozone layer. Without it life would not exist as we know it.
Substances that speed up chemical reactions. Some use heat some use light.
Aka phototheraphy,the application of light rays to the skin for treatment of wrinkles, capillaries, pigmentation, or hair removal.
An acronym for light amplification stimulation emission of radiation. Medical device that uses electromagnetic radiation for hair removal and skin treatment.
Process when light from laser turns to heat
Light emitting diode or LED
Medical device used to reduce acne, increase skin circulation, improve collagen
Color component within skin such as blood or melanin.
Reduces acne, and bacteria.
Increases circulation, improves collagen elastin production, stimulates wound healing
Reduces swelling and inflammation, improves lymphatic flow, detoxifying, increases circulation
Reduces hyperpigmentation, reduces redness, calms and soothes.
Intense pulse light
A medical device that uses multiple colors and wavelengths (broad spectrum), of focused light to treat spider veins, hyperpigmentation, rosacea and redness.