Civil War Exam 3Robert E.Lee

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Robert E.Lee
- Suffering from major desertion during this time, soldiers morale suffering as they hear of the destruction and defeats from their homes
- Still entrenched outside of Richmond (Petersburg) in early 1865
- Replaces Jefferson Davis as General in Chief of the confederate army after the Confederate congress decides Davis is no longer cut out - subsequently puts Johnston in charge
Ulysses S. Grant
- Appointed to command all armies in the US in March 1864
- Attaches himself to the Army of the Potomac despite Sherman's please not to, Meade still technically in command of this Army but Grant is in charge
John Wilkes Booth
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Joseph Johnston
- Davis' choice to replace Bragg as commander in the West (Army of Tennessee), opposite of Sherman on the Union side
- Disliked and distrusted by Davis, pushed by Davis to make moves against Sherman
- Known for his retreats, not his offensive mind
- Pushed back by Sherman all the way towards critical hub of Atlanta
- Replaced by Hood in July 1864 bc of inaction, believing Sherman would have to attack his defensive position eventually
Jefferson Davis
- Before the war, was a prominent politician with considerable military experience
- Appointed no general in chief during the war, chose to keep important military decisions for himself to decide
- De facto head of the Confederate army
- Replaced as General in Chief in early 1865 by the confederate Congress --- > Lee
- Despite the Confederacy being on the brink of collapse in March 1865, Davis still unwilling to negotiate anything other than Southern Independence
- On the run , becomes heavily sought after Lincoln is murdered
- Captured in May 1865 in rural GA
- Rumors of him being captured in a dress (evidence of real hatred that exists after Lincoln is killed)
- Taken to Fortress Monroe
Abraham Lincoln
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George Meade
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Salmon Chase
- Secretary of Treasury who began to secretly seek the republican nomination in 1864 election - Lincoln catches on and Chase resigns
- Lincoln will later nominate him for Chief Justice
Edwin Stanton
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Andrew Johnson
- Replaces Hannibal Hamlin as Lincoln's VP on 1864 ticket
- Democrat, but hated Jefferson Davis and the southern aristocracy
- Hostile towards the south but also had no empathy for African Americans
- "Treason must be made odious"
- Impeached but not removed for violating the Tenure of Office Act
o Avoids impeachment, his defense team maneuvers behind the scene, spreading word that Johnson would stop obstructing Congress' plans and reminding congress that Benjamin Wade was next in line to become president which scared radical republicans
John Surratt
- Lincoln conspirator, escaped to Europe
Henry Raymond
- Founder of the New York Times and congressman
Horace Greeley
...
Boston Corbett
- Shoots John Wilkes Booth
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
...
Mary Surratt
- John Surrat's mom
- Owned boarding house where conspiracy meetings were held
George McClellan
- Democratic nominee in election of 1864
- War democrat who was hampered by a "peace plank" (peace democrats/copperheads wanted reunion with the south and for all to be as it was before the war)
o McClellan couldn't afford to isolate this portion of the party
Horatio Seymour
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James Ashley
- Abolitionist congressman from OH
- Voted against initial 13th amendment proposal knowing it wouldn't pass and that he would only be able to bring it back up later if he changed his vote
- Example of the deceptive politics used to pass the 13th amendment
Samuel Mudd
- Doctor who sets Booths leg after his jump
William Seward
- Secretary of State
- Attacked by Lewis Powell on night that Lincoln is assassinated
James Longstreet
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Benjamin Butler
- Contender for republican nomination in 1864 election
- Further to the left of Lincoln within the Republican party
- Political general
Alexander Stephens
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Frederick Douglass
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Roger Taney
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John Fremont
- Contender for republican nomination in 1864 election
- Further to the left of Lincoln within the Republican party
- Political general who Grant wants to remove but Lincoln overrules this so Fremont won't be able to campaign
Philip Sheridan
- Union cavalry commander who helped block Lee's bath of escape and force his surrender at Appomattox
John H. Reagan
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Rutherford B. Hayes
- Republican president elected in 1876
- Pulls military out of the South, ending reconstruction
Joseph Holt
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James Speed
- Lawyer and friend of Lincoln
- Appointed Attorney General by Lincoln in 1864, more so because he was a loyalist and friend to Lincoln than because of his legal skills which will become an issue after the assassination
- Recommends a military tribunal rather than a civilian trial for Lincoln conspirators and Johnson takes his recommendation
Braxton Bragg
- Good friends with Jefferson Davis before and in to the war
- Army was defeated badly in 1864 and Davis realizes he must be replaced
- Replaced by Joseph Johnston but appointed as an advisor following his removal so stayed in the ear of Davis
Lewis Powell
- Lincoln conspirator
- Attacks and stabs William Seward
- Convicted and hanged
Henry Halleck
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Gideon Welles
- Secretary of the Navy, advocated for a civilian trial for the Lincoln conspirators
David Porter
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Henry Wirz
- Only confederate hanged after the war (because of the war, not including Lincolns assassination)
- Hanged not for his participation in the war, but for the crimes he committed during it
- Involved in Andersonville
- Confederate colonel attests to the mistreatment at Andersonville, where Wirz was in charge when the war ended
NO ONE TECHNICALLY HANGS AS A RESULT OF THE CIVIL
Oran Roberts
- Member of Texas secession convention before the war
- Elected Senator in 1866 and wanted to be accepted in the US congress to vote on reconstruction matters
William Sherman
...
Emilie Todd Helm
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John Bell Hood
- Appointed second in command under Johnston's army in the West
- Aggressive and effective division commander when given orders
- Replaces Johnson as head of the Army of Tennessee after he is pushed back towards Atlanta, had been secretly undermining Johnston's commands
- Feels pressured to attack Sherman (exactly what he had criticized Johnston for not doing & exactly what Sherman wants)
- Defeated badly by Sherman in late summer of 1864 and loses Atlanta to Sherman
- Resigns after Franklin and Nashville
George Thomas
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Thaddeus Stevens
- Radical republican
- Pushed for joint committee on reconstruction
- Believed the whole fabric of Southern society must be changed Southern plantation aristocracy must be broken down
- Also wanted to confiscate the land of the top 10% of Southerners and give it to freed slaves
Samuel Tilden
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Joshua Chamberlain
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Hannibal Hamlin
- Lincolns VP
- Replaced by Andrew Johnson in 1864 ticket
David Herold
- Conspirator, along with Lewis Powell, who was sent to murder William Seward
- Herold guards while Powell stabs Seward
George Atzerodt
- Lincoln conspirator
- Sent to murder Andrew Johnson but leaves before he shows up
George Julian
- Radical republican congressman
- Contributed to idea of military rule in the south
Clement Clay
- Confederate senator who was wanted for Lincoln's murder following the assassination
- Had been on the run to Mexico, but turns himself in when he hears he is wanted for murder
Edward Bates
- Attorney General under Lincoln before Speed
Advocated for civilian trials for Lincoln conspirators along with Gideon Welles
Francis Lieber
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Wade Hampton
- Left in charge of Columbia before Sherman approaches
Nathan Bedford Forrest
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O. O. Howard
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Jubal Early
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James Rollins
- Appoints a friend to a judge vacancy position that was intentionally left open by Lincoln - example of deceptive/low key bribes that occurred in the passing of the 13th amendment
Susan B. Anthony
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Pierre G.T Beauregard
- Piecing back together Army of Tennessee after Hood's defeats at Franklin/Nashville
Total War
- While the US Civil War did increase in violence every year and there was unprecedented destruction, violence and destruction should not necessarily be taken for total war
- When Grant takes over in the East, fighting is virtually non stop and the casualties reflect this (high)
- In WWII, Germany was dominated by military culture and Japan didn't believe in surrender
o Industrialized, technical war
o Systematic atrocities
- While Grant and Sherman were set on making the south feel the war, they never focused on the annihilation of civilians
Ford Theater
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Appomattox
- After Lee flees Richmond in April 1865, Grant follows him but realizes further bloodshed does not have to occur
- Grant writes Lee seeking a surrender
o The two correspond back and forth, both expressing desire for peace, but Lee doesn't want to surrender right away
- Lee realizes he is trapped and agrees to meet at Appomattox to discuss terms
o Grants terms were very liberal toward the soldiers, Lee never even arrested
o Grant will provide rations to Lee's starving men and allow them to keep their horses, grant doesn't want hostility between the two armies
- Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865
Thirteenth Amendment
- By late 1864, early 1865, Lincoln is now intent on passing an amendment
- Faces an issue with lame ducks - though republicans had a successful election, many seats were still held by democrats who would remain in office for a year
- Lincoln zeros in on these lame duck democrats to vote for the 13th amendment
o Wants the amendment passed ASAP and before the war is over
o Willing to basically bribe and maneuver with democrats to shift their votes
o Has peace commissioners detained amongst other things to get amendment passed
Amendment passes in 1865 with two votes to spare, abolished slavery
Union Bummers
- Name for Shermans men during their march to the sea
Hampton Roads conference
- 3 confederates (including Alexander Stephens) sent with authorization to try and negotiate Confederate independence
- Lincoln allows them to Grants lines and visits with them but has 3 indispensable conditions for them to be allowed to move forward to Washington
o 1. Restoration of national authority throughout all states
o 2. No receding on the slavery question
o 3. No cessation of hostilities short of an end of the war and the disbanding of all forces hostile to the Union
- The confederates dont have the authority to agree to any of this, nothing comes of the conference
Second Inaugural Address
- March 1865, about a month before Lee surrenders
- Thousands gather in DC to hear speech that Lincoln worked on for weeks
- Hamlin, outgoing VP, has very gracious farewell address, while Johnson, incoming VP, rambles on in a drunk, at times incoherent speech
- Lincolns Speech is not the celebratory, victory speech people were expecting
o Places the blame for the war on the South and slavery
o Expresses his belief that the bloodshed of the war was the nation paying for the sin of slavery (both sides)
o Calls on the nation to bind their wounds, not to punish the South
- At post inaugural party, Lincoln openly engages with Frederick Douglass, indicating that things were going to change
War Democrat
...
Army of the Potomac
...
Battle of Franklin
- November 1864
- Hood aggressively attacks Union forces to no avail, suffers massive losses here and moves on to defeat at Nashville as well
10% Plan
- Lincolns preliminary plan for reconstruction
- States would be readmitted to the union after 10% of voters took a loyalty oath to the Union
- Reflects Lincolns desire for a more conciliatory reconstruction
Radical Republicans
- During reconstruction, had very different ideas than Johnson
o Equal rights for slaves
o Democratic government
o Elimination of the Southern aristocratic elite hold on the South
- Generally wanted harsher treatment towards the south, wanted slave/plantation owners to be punished
- Believed African Americans needed the right to vote before anything else
- Determined not to let Confederates (who had months earlier been fighting against the union/were secessionists) back in the government (Southern states had elected their officials and they wanted back in)
- Thaddeus Stevens, Benjamin Wade, Charles Sumner, George Julian, James Ashley, etc
- Believed in citizens enjoying equality of civil and political rights secured by a powerful national government
Presidential Pardons
- Johnson blanket pardons low level confederate soldiers
- Higher confederate officials and elites had to apply individually so that Johnson could personally decide to pardon them
- Pardoned confederates were then free to participate in adopting new state constitutions and electing officials
- Johnson pardons thousands of confederates during the summer of 1865
- Radical republicans not happy with all of these pardons
Confiscation
- Idea proposed by Thaddeus Stevens for radical reconstruction
- Seizing the land of the top 10% as homesteads for freedmen
- Believed this necessary to change the whole fabric of southern society, break down the elite plantation class in the south
Fourteenth Amendment
- Any person born in the US is a citizen
- No state may abridge a persons equality before the law
- A states representation will decrease proportionately by the number of male citizens denied the right to vote
- Anyone who had sworn an oath to the constitution and participated in the rebellion was barred from holding office
- Essentially a national guarantee of equality before the law
Military Rule
...
Scalawags
- Southern born, white republicans
- Called "white negros"
- For must scalawags, the alliance with blacks was a "marriage of convenience" not necessarily because they truly believed in social equality
o More radical against rebels than in favor of negros
Ku Klux Klan
...
Enforcement Acts
- Passed in 1870 and 1871 under Grant administration to combat KKK and racial violence
- Prohibited groups from banding together or go in disguise in public with the intention to violate others rights
- Designed to enforce and protect the 14th and 15th amendments
- Gave the president the right to use military force
- Were successful for a short period of time, and then recession hits
Modern War
- Some people label the Civil War as the first "modern" war
- Civil War did have certain modern hallmarks
o Mass armies (partially created by conscription)
o Mobilization of industry and (particularly in the South) its control by a central government
o Efforts to sway public opinion
o Trench warfare (Richmond and Petersburg)
o Ironclad and steam powered ships
o Rifles, early machine guns, mines
- Winning an election one of the most convincing arguments for modern conflicts and the Civil War certainly had that
Fort Fisher
- Fort that protects Wilmington, NC which hosted a vital supply line that supplied Lee's Army of Northern VA (the last remaining large, functioning army of the confederacy by January 1865)
- Very well fortified fort
Benjamin Butler initially tasked with taking the Fort, but is replaced by Alfred Terry
Black codes
- Laws implemented in reestablished Southern Legislatures during reconstruction
o EX: Blacks had to sign labor contracts, Vagrancy laws, SC banned firearms, liquor and more
o Apprenticeship laws that obliged black minors to work without pay for planters
o SC black agricultural workers had to have written authorization to sell their produce
- Outlined explicit second class citizenship for freed people
- Johnson not too concerned about these
- These codes combined with Johnson's actions made even moderate/conservative republicans rally around the notion that blacks needed the right to vote - brought the Republican party more together
- Pg 93 reconstruction book
Military Tribunals
- Held for the Lincoln conspirators rather than civilian trials at the recommendation of John Speed
- Conspirators are convicted after 7 weeks
- 4 conspirators hanged (Powell, Herold, Marry Surrat, and Atzerodt)
Wilderness
- Battle takes place between Lee and Grant during Overland Campaign in May 1864
- Thick, dense vegetation rather than open field which diminishes Grant's advantage of numbers
- Lee surprises Grant in a disorienting, confusing battle in the thickets
- Turns in to a forrest fire, but Grant still manages to attack Confederates the next day
- Longstreet arrives to back up Lee and prevent a union victory, does so, but is shot by friendly fire
- Tactical draw, but Grant pursues Lee unlike generals that had come before him
- Series of battles fought for almost a month and a half straight, shows tenacity on Grant's part that the North had been lacking but racks up massive casualties
Election of 1864
- Massive losses become by Grant become a problem for Lincoln within his own party, faces opposition and criticism for losses and failing to end the war
- Salmon Chase (Secretary of Treasury) began to secretly seek the republican nomination - Lincoln catches on and Chase resigns
- John Fremont and Benjamin Butler other potential republican nominee candidates
- Radical republicans believed Lincoln was a poor administrator and Kentuckian (bc of his birthplace)
o But, Charles Sumner and union soldiers widely supported Lincoln
- In summer of 1864, Grant is stuck outside of Petersburg and Sherman is stuck outside of Atlanta which again causes woes for Lincoln and the North
- McClellan gets democratic nomination
- Republican party platform includes call for amendment outlawing slavery aka abolition
Atlanta
- Critical rail and supply hub
- Sherman sets his sites on Atlanta in summer of 1864
Peace Democrat/Copperheads
- In 1864, Davis saw the election of a peace democrat/copperhead as the souths best hope for independence
Battle of Nashville
...
March to the sea
- Followed the Atlanta campaign
- By late 1864, Hood is causing chaos for Sherman's supplies and lines
- Cat and mouse game ensues between the two which really irritates Sherman
- Sherman wants to change strategy: rather than pursue Hood, he wants to ignore him and march through the heart of GA destroying supply lines and living off the land en route to the sea
- Sherman pushes Grant to approve this plan, Grant and Lincoln hesitant at first (dangerous risk, Sherman would be deep in enemy territory without supply/communication lines)
- Grant can't ignore the psychological affect it would have on the South if Sherman were to accomplish this and eventually approves it
- Hood is defeated at the Battles of Franklin and Nashville after an aggressive offensive, but Sherman is busy marching to the sea not worrying about him
- Sherman's army destroys railroads and supply lines (including his own) on his march
- Faces little resistance (GA militia who had seen no fighting unsuccessfully attempts to counter Sherman)
- Sherman orders Army to forage but property to be left alone unless residents/guerillas cause resistance - in which case his officers allowed to cause relentless destruction
Joint Committee on Reconstruction African American suffrage
- Radical republicans completely dissatisfied with what Johnson has done when congress comes in to session
- Thaddeus Stevens pushes for committee
- Robert E Lee among the confederates who will testify to this committee
- Gives bleak outlook on freed slaves
Civil Rights Act of 1866
- Any person born in US is a citizen
- Gave colored people "Full and equal benefits.. as do white people"
o Under this legislation sates can no longer remove rights from individuals based on color
- Vetoed by Johnson, believed it was a stride towards centralization and giving colored people these rights infringed on the rights of white people
- Congress overrides the veto but realizes that the opposition is so strong and deeply engrained that they need something stronger that could not just be undone by the next president 14th amendment
- However, bill is directed against public, not private acts of injustice, which freed blacks were experiencing much of
o Discriminatory state laws perceived as greatest threat to blacks' rights
o But, freedmen were facing rampant violence and unequal treatment by sheriffs, judges, and juries
Women's suffrage
- 14th amendment isolates women bc of the explicit use of "male"
- Abolition and feminism had been linked for many years, but the 14th amendment severs this tie and the rise of an independent feminist movement for women's suffrage ensues
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Pg 122
- Divided the former confederate states (except Tennessee) in to five military districts
- Former states were placed under martial law
- Required congressional approval of new state constitutions
- States must permit voting rights of all men
- States must ratify the 14th amendment
Carpetbaggers
- Northerners who moved south during reconstruction
- Viewed by southerners as the lowest class of the northern people, able to pack up all their belongings in a carpet bag and move south to fatten the southerners misfortunes
- In fact, many were well educated and middle class, included teachers, lawyers, businessmen, Union veterans, etc
o Many likely came out of combined desire for personal gain and a desire to reform the unprogressive south
Fifteenth Amendment
- Ratified in February 1868
- Rights cannot be denied based on race, color, previous condition of servitude
- Congress has power to enforce this article
Election of 1876
- Hays (Republican) vs Tilden (Democrat)
- Tilden carried the popular vote, but 3 states had disputed elections
- Federal election commission formed and members vote along strict party lines
- All 3 electoral votes go to Hays
The Lieber Code
...
The Overland Campaign
- Spring 1864, after Grant takes control of all Union armies
- Lee and Grant pitted against one another
- Lee's army is Grant's objective Orders Meade to follow Lee's Army, meanwhile Lee is thinking the same thing about Grant
- Lee and Grant meet at the Battle of the Wilderness in May 1864
- 6 weeks of constant fighting
- Grant moved south of Richmond, wanted to be able to receive supplies, shifts the war
- Grant appears to be stalled outside of Petersburg, VA
Andersonville
Andersonville
...
Sherman/Grant Strategy
- Exhaustion: breaking down both southern will/morale and resources
Sherman's Neckties
...
Fall of Richmond
- Lee warns Davis to flee, as he plans to the next day
- April 2, 1865 Richmond falls
- Lincoln visits the city and is treated as a liberator by African Americans
- Lee is fleeing further south with Grant following and attacking him along the way
National Union Party
- Republican convention held in June 1864
- Andrew Johnson replaces Hannibal Hamlin as Lincoln's VP on his ticket
Shenandoah Valley
- Phil Sheridan (union) makes the valley desolate, destroying railroads and crops and more, and goes on to defeats Jubal Early (confederate)
- Previously a scene of confederate successes, now a place of confederate disaster
- Sheridan's valley operation here another example of Union exhaustion strategy - damaged both confederate morale and resources
Political generals
- Politicians who were appointed as generals despite having little military experience or training; generals whose appointments involved politics
o Main purpose of these appointments was often to mobilize their constituencies for the war effort important national strategy
- More prevalent in the Union
- Benjamin Butler, Nathaniel Banks, John Fremont, Daniel Sickles
Savannah
- By mid December 1864, Sherman's army is approaching the city of Savannah on their march
- 10,000 confederate soldiers evacuate the city and the city surrenders without being burned
Columbia
- Major railroad and supply hub as well as cotton storage
- Beauregard leaves Wade Hampton in charge of Columbia, ordering him to burn the cotton so it couldn't fall in to enemy hands
- Grant orders Sherman to move in to SC in early 1865
- Whether Sherman ordered it or not, we don't know, but Columbia burns to the ground
Wade- Davis Bill
- Reconstruction bill passed to refute the 10% plan
- Called for 50% of voters in seceded states to take a loyalty oath in order to be readmitted
Presidential Reconstruction
- Johnson moves to bring Southern states back in to the Union while congress is out of session, has a number of months to implement his vision without Congress
o His terms for reconstruction were that slavery was ended and ordinances of secession were repealed
- Under his plan, all property rights except for slaves were restored to Confederates who pledged loyalty to the union and support for emancipation
- Johnson's reconstruction plan never attempted to bring African Americans in the political process (believed it was up to the states)
- Johnsons reconstruction plans alienated virtually every northerner (but makes gains with white southerners)
- Johnston vetos Civil Rights Bill and Freedmens bureau but it's overridden by congress
Freedman's Bureau
- Designed to make sure freed slaves had very basic necessities
o Food and clothes
- Very short lived
- First time the federal government really acknowledges it's role in the lives of its inhabitants, acknowledging federal responsibility for the freedmen radical at the time
o Johnson vetos the bill
New Orleans Riot of 1866
- Race riot on the eve of the 1866 midterm elections
- LA government had reconvened and lay back in the hands of confederates
o Platform they had ran on explicitly declared it a white mans government and that there should be no equality under any circumstances
- 38 people killed
Union League
...
Tenure of Office Act
- Designed to bind Andrew Johnsons ability to remove cabinet members, particularly Edwin Stanton (not a radical republican, but was very close to them and had been to Lincoln)
- Forbade the president from removing federal office members who had been appointed by the senate aka cabinet members
- Johnson tests this law by suspending Stanton (after Grant advised him that firing Stanton would be illegal and cause an array of issues)
o Congress declares this illegal and impeaches Johnson for his violation of the act
Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871
...
Election of 1866
- Heated elections, race riots break out which push Northern public more towards radical republicans and away from Johnson
- John goes on a speaking tour (Western Tour) and further tarnishes himself
- Radical Republicans make significant gains in these midterm elections
Reasons for Southern Optimism in 1864
- War weariness in the North
o Southerners were defending their homeland, so easier to keep their momentum in contrast to Northern soldiers who were fighting for an idea (preservation of the Union)
- Union call for 500,000 more troops, depressing for North
- Strong democratic "peace" party in the North, wanted to settle the war under essentially whatever terms the South wanted (slavery intact)
- Northern elections in late 1864 - South believed if they could hold off a major defeat then the North would a elect a democrat
Declining Southern Morale in late 1864
- Sherman taking Atlanta was a major blow
- Mary Chesnut says she thought the South would be wiped off the face of the earth after Atlanta
- Davis travels to the South to try and raise morale (his own popularity was declining, largely bc of his replacement of Johnston with Hood and the subsequent taking of Atlanta)
o Many blamed him for the loss