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81 terms

CLS 109 Week 1

STUDY
PLAY
Binocular
pertaining to the use of both eyes; possessing two eyepieces as with a microscope
Compensate
to make amends; be equivalent to.
Condenser
part of a microscope sub-stage that regulates the amount of light directed on a specimen.
High-power field (HPF)
refers to micro-scope lens. usually 40x magnification
Low-power field (LPF)
refers to micro-scope lens. usually 10x magnification
Magnify
to make something look larger than it really is.
Minute
a measurement of time equal to 60 seconds; very small, tiny.
Monocular
possessing a single eyepiece, as with a microscope.
Objectives
on a microscope- a lens or series of lenses.
Proficient
well advanced in an art, occupation, skill or branch of knowledge; unusually knowledgeable.
Quality control specimen
...
Technical
relating to some particular art, science, or trade; also , requiring special skill or technique.
Waiver
to give up; forgo; waiving of a right or claim
What is the first step completed when utilizing a microscope?
Wash hands and put on latex or vinyl gloves
After plugging the microscope light source into electrical outlet, the next step is ?
place the specimen slide on the stage with the frosted end up between the clips and secure it over the opening of the stage.
When the outline of the specimen is in view, what specific dial is utilized until the specimen can be seen in detail?
Turn the fine- adjustment dial until the specimen can be seen in detail.
When would the immediate-power objective be utilized when viewing a specimen?
.
When using oil-immersion lens objective or HPF, should oil be used sparingly or copiously to aid in further specimen identification?
When using the oil-immersion lens objective of hpf, oil should be used very sparingly
What is the last procedure step when working with the microscope?
Remove gloves and wash hands
Labeling parts of a microscope
1.Occular Lens(eyepiece) 2.Body Tube 3. Arm 4. Course Adjustment knob 5. Fine Adjustment knob 6. Base 7. Head 8. Objectives 9. Stage Clips 10. Stage 11. Diaphragm 12. Light Source.
What equipment would be needed to be set up when using a microscope?
Microscope, electrical outlet, specimen on disposable glass slide with frosted end, cover glass (used usually for wet specimens only) lens cleaning tissues, latex or vinyl gloves
What specific OSHA guidelines apply when working with bodily-fluid or specimen?
personal protective equipment (PPE)
Why is a first morning voided urine sample the "desired " specimen?
It is the most concentrated
What is the name of the pigment in urine that dictates its color?
Urochrome
A "fruity" smelling urine sample, which contains ketones, may indicate what metabolic disease?
Diabetes mellitus
What kind of microscopes have a "two-lens" magnification system?
Binocular
Red in Urine
RBCs, Hemoglobin, Myoglobin
Wine-Red Urine
Porphyrins
Brown-Black
Melanin, Homogentistic Acid, Hemoglobin
Yellow-Brown, Green-Brown
Bilirubin, Bile Pigments
Hazy Urine
Mucus, Talcum powder, Squamous Epithelial Cells
Cloudy Urine
Calcium Oxalate, Urci Acid Crystals, Amorphous Urates
Cloudy-Red
RBCs
Turbid or Cloudy
WBCs, Bacteria, Yeast, Renal Epithelial Cells, Lipids
Microbiology
Branch of Medicine dealing with microbes/microorganisms
Bacteriology
Study of Bacteria
Cocci
Spherical Bacteria
Diplococci
Pairs of Cocci
Bacilli
Rod shaped bacteria
Aerobic
Bacteria that requires Oxygen
Anaerobic
Bacteria that does not require Oxygen
Staphylococci
Grape-like clusters
Spirochete
Spiral shaped bacteria
Mycobacterium
Group of bacteria that cannot be identified by the visual gram stain technique
Bacteria
Single celled organisms that reproduce dividing from one cell into two
Culturette
Sterile transport system
Stains
applied to better visualize and help identify bacteria
Purpose of Urinalysis
To detect Metabolic abnormalities, disease, infection or damage to kidneys
Homeostasis
The human body strives to maintain a state of equilibrium of the internal enviroment, which is called...
First Morning Void
Which is often the most desired urine specimen
One hour
When should the 24 hour specimen be tested?
Physical, Chemical, microscopic
What are the three routine parts of a Urinalysis
Urochrome
Pigment that makes the color of Urine
Clear and Transparent
What is the normal clarity of Urine
Due to keytones, indicates DM
if Urine smells friuty what does that mean?
UTI
If urine smells foul what does that mean?
PKU
If urine smell mousy or musty, what does that mean?
1.005-1.030
What is the normal range for specific gravity
Refractometer, Urinometer, Reagent Strips
Three methods of meauring specific gravity
Qualitative
Provides an approximate indication whether or not a substance is present or in abnormal amounts
pH
acidity or alkalinity of urine
4.5-8.0 Average 6.0
What is the range of pH for freshly voided urine and the average
Clinitest
Addtional test for glucose
Icotest
Additional test for Bilirubin
Acetest
Additional test for Ketones
EIA
Enzyme ImmunoAssay; qualitative test (urine); color reaction
Serum testing
Gives quantitative results
1.010
For pregnancy testing, the specific gravity must be what?
10-15 mL
when doing a microscopic exam how much urine do you put on the slide?
3-5 min
when doing a microscopic exam on urine how long do yu centrifuge?
Supernatant, Sediment
when doing a microscopic exam on urine, it will seperate into what two layers?
Supernatant
Portion of Urine that will be discarded
Sediment
the solids remaining in urine after being centrifuged
Frame
Arm and base of microscope
Stage
flat platform that hold the slide
Mechanical stage control knobs
used to move slide on various directions
Condenser
the lens systsem between the stage and light source, which collects the lights rays and projects them toward the slide
Iris diaphram
Provides additional light control
Culture media
where bacteria is grown on a culturette
MDR
Multi drug resistant
HCG
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: hormone produced in pregnancy soon after conception