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SGU: Bacteriology Set 1
Terms in this set (105)
Cocci (1 micrometer) and Rods (0.5-1 micrometer)
What bacteria will NOT pass through 0.45 micrometer filters?
mycoplasma, chlamydia, rickettsia and all obligate intracellular bacteria (about 0.2 micrometer)
What bacteria can pass through filters that retain regular bacteria?
gram + stains purple; gram - stains pink
What color does gram + bacteria stain? gram -?
pseudomonas (gram neg rods)
What bacteria is common in wound infections in dogs and produces greenish pus?
What is a clinical sign caused by campylobacter?
actinomyces and nocardia
What are two gram + branching bacteria found in subcutaneous abscesses?
What bacteria has the appearance of railroad tracks?
fever and swelling of joints
What are clinical signs caused by borrelia burgdorferi?
What is a gram + pleomorphic rods bacteria that causes pyelonephritis in cattle?
no effective treatments; highly contagious --> needs to be separated from other cows
What is the treatment for mycoplasma?
Is the cell wall of bacteria gram +/-?
only the ends of the cells stain well
What does bipolar staining mean?
Giemsa or silver stain
What type of stain should be used for acid fast bacteria?
negative staining- India ink
What should be used to visualize capsules?
change to gram -
What can happen to gram + cells that are either too old or that have been overheated?
primary stain is pink/red and counter stain is blue
How do slides appear that have been treated with acid fast stain?
mycobacterium in a tubercle
What is an example of acid fast bacteria?
What type of stain should be used for leptospira?
capsules look like clear halos around the bacteria
How do bacteria look when stained using India ink?
used to attach to mucosa wall
What is the purpose of Pili/Fibriae?
Are Pili/Fimbriae, LPS and periplasmic space gram +/-?
thick peptidoglycan layer and no LPS
What are the important characteristics of a gram + cell wall?
thin peptidoglycan layer and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) is present
What are the important characteristics of a gram - cell wall?
Ex: streptococcus pneumoniae
What type of bacteria can escape phagocytosis? Example?
Can flagella be visualized using gram stain?
What is an example of a bacteria with both flagella and pili?
highly resistant; have a thick wall
Bacterial spores are highly _____ and have a _____ wall
clostridium and bacillus
What are some examples of bacteria that produce spores?
ONLY gram +
Only gram ___ bacteria form spores!
look like little tennis rackets
How do spores of clostridium tetani appear on a slide?
E. Coli: 20min
Mycobacterium tuberculosis: 24hrs
What is the doubling time of E. Coli vs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Most pathogens are aerobic/anaerobic?
requires small amount of oxygen
Ex: campylobacter jejuni
What does it mean to be microaerophillic? Bacteria example?
Anaerobic bacteria will not multiply in the presence of ____ and some might _____
45 degrees Celsius
Ex: clostridium jejuni
Thermophillic bacteria grow at what temp? example?
4 degrees Celsius
Ex: listeria, yersinia enterocolitica
Psychrophillic bacteria grow at what temp? example?
microaerophillic bacteria and anaerobes
Special pouches or jars are required to cultivate what type(s) of bacteria?
freeze drying, freezing at -70 degrees C, freezing in liquid nitrogen
What are some ways bacteria can be preserved long-term?
thermal inactivation, sterilization, chemical inactivation (formalin)
How can bacteria be inactivated?
to keep specimen moist; bacteria remain viable but do not multiply
Why is it important to use transport swabs for bacteria samples?
What type of culture agar is non-selective?
Gram + bacteria will not grow in which culture media?
use a catylase test: add 3% hydrogen peroxide to sample.....if it bubbles --> staph.
How can you differentiate staphylococcus from streptococcus?
use an enriched medium that suppresses grow of all bacteria except the one of interest followed by incubation
How can you isolate a certain bacteria?
antibiotic sensitivity testing
What must be done after isolation and identification of bacteria?
a type of antibiotic sensitivity test
What is the disk diffusion method?
What does the bacterial agglutination test look for?
serum from animal is mixed with colored suspension of killed bacteria of interest
How is the bacterial agglutination test done?
brucellosis, tuberculosis or entertoxigenis E. Coli
What may be diagnosed from a bacterial agglutination test?
latex particle aggin. for bacterial antigens
What test may be used to type streptococci?
black leg antigens or canine brucellosis antibodies
What may fluorescent antibody test diagnose?
toxin: clostridium perfringens
antibody: lyme disease
What is an example of a toxin that could be diagnosed by ELISA test? Example of antibody?
Mallein test (delayed hypersensitivty test)
What test could be used to diagnose glanders in horses?
cattle; does not affect dogs
Mannheimia haemolytica causes shipping fever in _____ but does not affect _______
Shiga Toxin and Hamburger Disease can be caused by different strains of which bacteria?
Pathogenic E. Coli can produce _______
What is an examples of an obligate pathogen?
What is an examples of a primary pathogen that causes conjunctivitis in cats?
What is an examples of a secondary pathogen?
intestinal E. Coli --> UTI
What are some examples of opportunistic pathogen?
Gingivitis in dogs from commensals is an examples of what type of infection?
Bacillus anthracis in soil infecting animals is an example of what type of infection?
Are strangles and the pneumonic plague contagious?
Is tetanus contagious?
Definition: The degree of pathogenicity bacteria may lose or gain
Definition: the process of diminishing virulence
What is an example of a bacteria that may be found in contaminated water and enter the host via skin abrasion or mucosa?
via urogenital tract or from placenta to fetus
What are some examples of ways Brucellosis can enter the host?
via the umbilicus
How can neonatal calves/foals get infected with E. Coli septicemia?
Spread by contact, food or water are examples of what type of transmission?
transmission of brucellosis from mother to offspring during pregnancy
What is an example of vertical transmission?
What type of specificity may change over time?
Definition: bacteriophage enters and codes for the virulence factor
Plasmids are transferred by what method?
What type of bacterial toxin is produced by both gram + and gram - bacteria?
Tetanus neurotoxin, cholera toxin, E. coli enterotoxin and botulism neurotixn are all examples of what type of bacterial toxin?
What type of bacterial toxin is only found in gram - bacterium?
LPS is what type of bacterial toxin?
E. Coli enterotoxin
Which exotoxin causes diarrhea in neonatal pigs?
Which exotoxin causes flaccid paralysis of muscles?
Which exotoxin causes a horse to present with legs that are stiff and apart or a dog to present with drooling due to the inability to swallow?
What is an example of a bactericidal drug?
What type of drug is bacteriostatic?
Bacitracin and Penicillin G are both ______ spectrum
Tetracyclines are _____ spectrum
Which drug is an example of a cell wall inhibitor?
b/c penicillin is a cell wall inhibitor and mycoplasma does not have a cell wall
Why wouldn't penicillin work on mycoplasma?
penicillins and cephalosporins
Which antibiotics should not be used in rabbits?
What major group of antibiotics are not absorbed in the GI tract?
What type of antibacterial drug causes damage to cell membrane function?
inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
What is the mechanism of action of Sulfonamides and Quinolones?
inhibition of protein synthesis
What is the mechanism of action of tetracyclines and aminoglycosides?
prodcue beta lactamase which destroys the beta lactam ring of penicillin and therefore inactivates it
How does Staphylococcus aureus inactivate antibiotics?
amoxicillin and cavulanic acid
Clavamox is a combination of which 2 drugs?
What major groups of antibacterial drugs destroys useful intestinal flora if used for a long period of time?
Which aminoglycoside is effective on 100% strains of pseudomonas?
Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method
What type of susceptibility testing is used widely?
What sterilization method is used to inactivate spores?
Do soluble alcohols kill spores?
What type of chemical sterilizing agent should be used on hard, non-porous surfaces and are sporicidal at the right pH?
soluble alcohols, phenolics, detergents
Which chemical disinfecting agents are not sporicidal?
Which chemical disinfecting agents is used on farms?
What bacteria may survive beyond 50 years in a favorable environment?
Brucella and Salmonella can survive up to how long in a favorable environment?
Which bacteria can only last 3 days in a favorable environment?
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