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involves movement; convey the body from one location to another; crawl, creep, walk, run, jump, leap, gallop, hop, slide, skip


describes movements done in place in which the objective is body movement; examples twist, stretch, bend, turn

manipulative skills

complex motor patterns that are basic to specialized sports and are performed with some kind of object (eg a ball or bat); pull, push, lift, strike, throw, kick, bounce; primary students should begin with a bean bag or large rubber ball

start and expand techniques

based on the principle that the initial activity should be so simple that all children can experience a measure of success in performing the skill; expansion activities can be added to challenge capable students and to increase the complexity of the activity

heart rate formula:

target hear rate: 220-age x 70% -80%
maximum hear rate: 220-age


how often; number if sessions


how difficult is the activity, level


how long; duration

contour lines

show mass; contour lines separates an area from its surrounding background; contour lines follow both the interior and exterior structure, they can indicated shadows and textures


a way of representing three-dimensional space in two dimensions

impressionist art movement:

used primary colors; secondary colors were considered muted and were rejected; impressionist art were characterized by the used of vibrant color, short quick and visible brush stroke; emphasis on everyday life, natural outdoor settings; and captured light

organic shapes:

curvilinear are shapes with a natural look and general are curvy and irregular; ie shapes of trees, flowers, animals

length of a note

notes with shorter time values have a solid oval shape with a stem; one or more flags attached make the note even shorter


Erikson states that young children strive to gain this independence as early as one to three years old; another critical period in which children strive to be autonomous is during adolescence

self concept

refers to way of looking at our self within a frame of reference; development of self begins in young children as they look in a mirror; as they grow older in elementary school - at around age 7 children are able to emotionally respond to the world by reflecting what they perceive as the real image of themselves


(birth to 18moths) - children exhibit poor verbal and cognitive development; object permanence (out of sight out of mind)

concrete operational

(7 to 12)- students thinking becomes operational; meaning that concepts become organized and logical, as long as they are working with or around concrete materials or images; also students master the number conservation and other conservation tasks but most don't understand symbolic concepts

formal operations

(12 +)- children develop and demonstrate concepts without concrete material or images; students think fully in symbolic terms our concepts


(Piaget) development is motivated by the search for a stable balance toward effective adaptations; this balanced stated is called equilibration. 3 phase: children begin in a state of balance, thought of changes and conflict emerge, through process of assimilation and accommodation a more sophisticated mode of thought surfaces

Intelligence and IQ

-130+ very high
-90-109 average
-69 and below - extremely low

how to calculate IQ

IQ = mental age/chronological age X 100


for ages 2-85; most widely used, useful to help diagnosed developmental disabilities

Wechsler Intellignece Scale for Children

used to measure verbal and performance abilities, including verbal comprehension

Gardner's Multiple Intelligence

8 types of intelligences that are not typically analyzed when examining competencies, they are: linguistic verbal, logical mathematical, spatial, bodily kinetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist


helped transform Freud's psychosexual perspectives; he theorized that people are biologically influenced by unconscious drives and defenses, personality develops through a series of conflicts, the stages are:
1) basic trust v mistrust (1 ½ ) - helps set the life long expectation of feeling sand and secure in the world
2) autonomy v shame and doubt (1 ½ to 3 ½) a time to explore but if autonomy is harshly punished the shame and doubt may arise
3) initiative versus guilt (3 ½ to 6)
4) industry versus inferiority (6 to 12)industry refers to the child learning to work with others, if inferiority ensues then low self-esteem
5) identity versus role of confusion (12 to 18)


learning through observation

types of play

functional, constructive, pretend or imaginative play, rough and tumble, games with rules play

anxious avoidant

child readily separates from the caregiver and actively avoids them

anxious resistant

infant become anxious before the caregiver leaves and is upset during their absence


The process by which a child incorporates new experience into the previous undersanding, and modifies those existing concepts to include the new information

Atmospheric Perspective

Creates an illusion of depth


In visual art, the movement of a point through space, described in terms of width, length, direction, and curvature or flow

Initiative vs Guilt

Sense of competence and purposefulness

In art, contour lines move across the form of an object to create

Mass and Volume


When a note of a different pitch on a musical scale sounds good when played simultaneously withe a piece's melody

Nonlocomotor Skills

Bending, pushing, stretching, turning, twisting


Three or more harmonious notes played together; instruments with multiple strings (piano, guitar) can play chords


Music played by one to twenty performers


In a character-character interaction, the total array of purposeful activity, both external (physical) and internal (psychological), by which characters attempt to acheive their objective

23. Single best predictor of a child and adult adaption is



24. In visual art, the movement of a point through space, described in terms of width, length, direction, and curvature or flow


27. In theater, the silent deception of a static scene


Musical notes played with the right hand on a piano, having a higher sound than those in bass clef


: Good art has a sense of this, it is harmonious, or disharmonious if elements are working against each other or clashing


A muscial form whose main feature is the return of the main theme, which alternates with secondary themes (Simple: ABABA, 2nd ABACA, 3rd ABACABA)

Enviornmental Staging

The stage and the audience blend together, every space in the theater is used

Examples of axial movements

Arabesque, stretching, bending


Credited with the theory that children who "discover" solutions will learn better


Japanese actor holds a picturesque pose to establish his character or a theme

isometric activities

isolate certain muscles; not considered comprehensive; during them it is common to to see visible movement since it is a static strength movement; common to see a muscle contract agains an immovable object; usually involve a weight or heavy calisthenics

cross-lateral throwing

an example is a second grade student throwing a bean bag through a hoop

structured movement activity

incorporates specific, quantifiable skills, and therefore impose limitations on the activity being performed; throwing a ball with your right hand while stepping forward with your left foot; it can be judged to its correctness

fine motor skills

small muscle movements that are generally associated with the fingers in coordination with the eyes; ie putting a spin on a football (upper elementary)

what are skill based drills

drills related to the sport, simulate game like conditions;

health related fitness

directly related to preventing and remediating the degenerative aspects of diease; include cardio, flexiability, and muscular strength and endurance

aerobic exercise

brings oxygen in; leads to imporved cardiovascular fitness and decreased body fat; examples are swimming, jogging, cycling


with out oxygen; weight lifting

examples of intergrating math into PE

figuring out their target hear rate; elementary students learn/find geometric shapes around the play ground

examples of intergrating science into PE

identifying parts of the body; students take their pulse and talk about imp of cardio fitness

importance of play

fundamental to childs physical and emotional health; allows for energy release, aquire motor abilities; practice real life situations,

rough and tumble play

end of early childhood; may look like fighting but actually not as seen by open hands and laughter

proper mechanic of catching a ball

hand position (cup both hands and receive ball with pads of fingers), head position (following the ball from the point of release to final contact), and arm position (bent at the elbow with relaxed at he side or in front of the body)

characteristics of self-esteem

children with it are motivated to succeed; express confidence, and generally feel a sense of being valued and accepted by others

axis line

the imaginary line connecting only the strongest and weakest figures

pentatonic scale

a five note scale; much of early jazz is based on it

diatonic scale

a scale with eight notes in an octave

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