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66 terms


involves movement; convey the body from one location to another; crawl, creep, walk, run, jump, leap, gallop, hop, slide, skip
describes movements done in place in which the objective is body movement; examples twist, stretch, bend, turn
manipulative skills
complex motor patterns that are basic to specialized sports and are performed with some kind of object (eg a ball or bat); pull, push, lift, strike, throw, kick, bounce; primary students should begin with a bean bag or large rubber ball
start and expand techniques
based on the principle that the initial activity should be so simple that all children can experience a measure of success in performing the skill; expansion activities can be added to challenge capable students and to increase the complexity of the activity
heart rate formula:
target hear rate: 220-age x 70% -80%
maximum hear rate: 220-age
how often; number if sessions
how difficult is the activity, level
how long; duration
contour lines
show mass; contour lines separates an area from its surrounding background; contour lines follow both the interior and exterior structure, they can indicated shadows and textures
a way of representing three-dimensional space in two dimensions
impressionist art movement:
used primary colors; secondary colors were considered muted and were rejected; impressionist art were characterized by the used of vibrant color, short quick and visible brush stroke; emphasis on everyday life, natural outdoor settings; and captured light
organic shapes:
curvilinear are shapes with a natural look and general are curvy and irregular; ie shapes of trees, flowers, animals
length of a note
notes with shorter time values have a solid oval shape with a stem; one or more flags attached make the note even shorter
Erikson states that young children strive to gain this independence as early as one to three years old; another critical period in which children strive to be autonomous is during adolescence
self concept
refers to way of looking at our self within a frame of reference; development of self begins in young children as they look in a mirror; as they grow older in elementary school - at around age 7 children are able to emotionally respond to the world by reflecting what they perceive as the real image of themselves
(birth to 18moths) - children exhibit poor verbal and cognitive development; object permanence (out of sight out of mind)
concrete operational
(7 to 12)- students thinking becomes operational; meaning that concepts become organized and logical, as long as they are working with or around concrete materials or images; also students master the number conservation and other conservation tasks but most don't understand symbolic concepts
formal operations
(12 +)- children develop and demonstrate concepts without concrete material or images; students think fully in symbolic terms our concepts
(Piaget) development is motivated by the search for a stable balance toward effective adaptations; this balanced stated is called equilibration. 3 phase: children begin in a state of balance, thought of changes and conflict emerge, through process of assimilation and accommodation a more sophisticated mode of thought surfaces
Intelligence and IQ
-130+ very high
-90-109 average
-69 and below - extremely low
how to calculate IQ
IQ = mental age/chronological age X 100
for ages 2-85; most widely used, useful to help diagnosed developmental disabilities
Wechsler Intellignece Scale for Children
used to measure verbal and performance abilities, including verbal comprehension
Gardner's Multiple Intelligence
8 types of intelligences that are not typically analyzed when examining competencies, they are: linguistic verbal, logical mathematical, spatial, bodily kinetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
helped transform Freud's psychosexual perspectives; he theorized that people are biologically influenced by unconscious drives and defenses, personality develops through a series of conflicts, the stages are:
1) basic trust v mistrust (1 ½ ) - helps set the life long expectation of feeling sand and secure in the world
2) autonomy v shame and doubt (1 ½ to 3 ½) a time to explore but if autonomy is harshly punished the shame and doubt may arise
3) initiative versus guilt (3 ½ to 6)
4) industry versus inferiority (6 to 12)industry refers to the child learning to work with others, if inferiority ensues then low self-esteem
5) identity versus role of confusion (12 to 18)
learning through observation
types of play
functional, constructive, pretend or imaginative play, rough and tumble, games with rules play
anxious avoidant
child readily separates from the caregiver and actively avoids them
anxious resistant
infant become anxious before the caregiver leaves and is upset during their absence
The process by which a child incorporates new experience into the previous undersanding, and modifies those existing concepts to include the new information
Atmospheric Perspective
Creates an illusion of depth
In visual art, the movement of a point through space, described in terms of width, length, direction, and curvature or flow
Initiative vs Guilt
Sense of competence and purposefulness
In art, contour lines move across the form of an object to create
Mass and Volume
When a note of a different pitch on a musical scale sounds good when played simultaneously withe a piece's melody
Nonlocomotor Skills
Bending, pushing, stretching, turning, twisting
Three or more harmonious notes played together; instruments with multiple strings (piano, guitar) can play chords
Music played by one to twenty performers
In a character-character interaction, the total array of purposeful activity, both external (physical) and internal (psychological), by which characters attempt to acheive their objective
23. Single best predictor of a child and adult adaption is
24. In visual art, the movement of a point through space, described in terms of width, length, direction, and curvature or flow
27. In theater, the silent deception of a static scene
Musical notes played with the right hand on a piano, having a higher sound than those in bass clef
: Good art has a sense of this, it is harmonious, or disharmonious if elements are working against each other or clashing
A muscial form whose main feature is the return of the main theme, which alternates with secondary themes (Simple: ABABA, 2nd ABACA, 3rd ABACABA)
Enviornmental Staging
The stage and the audience blend together, every space in the theater is used
Examples of axial movements
Arabesque, stretching, bending
Credited with the theory that children who "discover" solutions will learn better
Japanese actor holds a picturesque pose to establish his character or a theme
isometric activities
isolate certain muscles; not considered comprehensive; during them it is common to to see visible movement since it is a static strength movement; common to see a muscle contract agains an immovable object; usually involve a weight or heavy calisthenics
cross-lateral throwing
an example is a second grade student throwing a bean bag through a hoop
structured movement activity
incorporates specific, quantifiable skills, and therefore impose limitations on the activity being performed; throwing a ball with your right hand while stepping forward with your left foot; it can be judged to its correctness
fine motor skills
small muscle movements that are generally associated with the fingers in coordination with the eyes; ie putting a spin on a football (upper elementary)
what are skill based drills
drills related to the sport, simulate game like conditions;
health related fitness
directly related to preventing and remediating the degenerative aspects of diease; include cardio, flexiability, and muscular strength and endurance
aerobic exercise
brings oxygen in; leads to imporved cardiovascular fitness and decreased body fat; examples are swimming, jogging, cycling
with out oxygen; weight lifting
examples of intergrating math into PE
figuring out their target hear rate; elementary students learn/find geometric shapes around the play ground
examples of intergrating science into PE
identifying parts of the body; students take their pulse and talk about imp of cardio fitness
importance of play
fundamental to childs physical and emotional health; allows for energy release, aquire motor abilities; practice real life situations,
rough and tumble play
end of early childhood; may look like fighting but actually not as seen by open hands and laughter
proper mechanic of catching a ball
hand position (cup both hands and receive ball with pads of fingers), head position (following the ball from the point of release to final contact), and arm position (bent at the elbow with relaxed at he side or in front of the body)
characteristics of self-esteem
children with it are motivated to succeed; express confidence, and generally feel a sense of being valued and accepted by others
axis line
the imaginary line connecting only the strongest and weakest figures
pentatonic scale
a five note scale; much of early jazz is based on it
diatonic scale
a scale with eight notes in an octave